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Connections

Connections account for more than half the


cost of structural steelwork and so their
design and detailing are of primary
importance for the economy of the structure.

The type of connection designed has an


influence on member design and so must be
decided even prior to the design of the
structural system and design of members.
The connections provided in steel
structures can be classified as
1) riveted
2) bolted and
3) welded connections.
Connection elements consist of
components such as cleats, gusset plates,
brackets, connecting plates and
connectors such as rivets, bolts, pins,
and weld.
Riveted Connections.
Bolted Connections.
Welded Connection
Bolted connections
Connection classification
(a) Classification based on the type of
resultant force transferred.

(b) Classification based on the type of


force experienced by the bolts.

(c) Classification based on force transfer


mechanism by bolts.
Classification based on the type
of resultant force transferred.
concentric connections
force transfer in tension
and compression member,

eccentric connections
in reaction transferring
brackets

moment resisting connections


in beam to column
connections in frames.
Classification based on the type of force
experienced by the bolts

shear connections,

tension connections and

combined shear and tension


connections.
shear connections
(a) Tension connection (b) Tension plus shear connection
Classification based on force transfer
mechanism by bolts.
bearing type
bolts bear against the holes to transfer
the force or
friction type
force transfer between the plates due to
the clamping force generated by the
pre–tensioning of the bolts.
Bolts and bolting

Bolts used in steel structures are of three types


1) Black Bolts
2) Turned and Fitted Bolts and
3) High Strength Friction Grip
(HSFG) Bolts.
Bolts and bolting
Black bolts are unfinished and are made of
mild steel and are usually of Grade 4.6.
Black bolts have adequate strength and
ductility when used properly.

Turned –and fitted bolts have uniform


shanks and are inserted in close tolerance
drilled holes and made snug tight by box
spanners.
Shear transfer by bearing type bolt

Tension in one plate is equilibrated by the bearing


stress between the bolt and the hole in the plate.
Since there is a clearance between the bolt and
the hole in which it is fitted, the bearing stress is
mobilised only after the plates slip relative to one
another and start bearing on the bolt .
friction type connection

Pretension in the bolt causes clamping forces


between the plates even before the external load
is applied. When the external load is applied, the
tendency of two plates to slip against one another
is resisted by the friction between the plates.
Failure of bolted joints
1.Shearing of bolts
When plates slip due to applied force shear
stresses are developed. Shear failure takes
place at the bolt shear interface when the
bolt shear capacity is exceeded
Failure of bolted joints
2. Bearing failure of bolt
The bolt is crushed around half circumference.
If the connected plates are made of high
strength steel the heaviest stressed plate
may press the bolt shank.
Failure of bolted joints
3. Bearing failure of plate
Bolts under shear stresses may slip and comes
in contact with the plates. If the bolt material
is stronger than the plate material plate may
get crushed.
3. Bearing failure of plate
Failure of bolted joints
4. Tension failure of bolts

Bolts subjected
to tension may
fail at the
stress area.
Failure of bolted joints
5. Tension or tearing failure of plates
Occurs when the bolts are stronger
than the plates. Tension on both the
gross area and net effective area must
be considered.
Failure of bolted joints

6. Block shear failure


Bolts may have been placed at a lesser
edge distance than required causing the
plates to shear out . Possibility increases
when high strength bolts are used.

This failure occurs with shear on one


plane and tension on perpendicular plane .
Failure modes of bolted connections
Bearing type of bolts

P/2

P/2
countersunk bolt
A bolt having a circular head with a flat
top and a conical bearing surface which
tapers in from the top; when in place,
the head is flush-mounted.
Example1
(in bearing type connection)
Calculate the strength of the bolts in the
lap splice in figure. M 20 Grade 8.8 bolts
in 22mm clearance holes and E250 (Fe 410)
plate.
16
20

80
Bolts are in single shear in standard holes.
d = 20 mm, do = 22 mm
e = 40 mm, p = 60 mm
fub= 800 M Pa, fu = 410 M Pa
Shear capacity per bolt

Vdsb 
f ub
nn Anb  ns Asb 
 mb 3
 mb  1.25,
800   2
  0  1  20   116.08 N
1.25  3  4 
Bearing capacity of thinner plate per bolt
2.5kb dtfu
Vnpb 
 mb
kb is the least of
40 60 800
,  0.25, ,1 
 0.606
3  22 3  22 410

Vnpb  2.5  0.606  20 16  410 / 1.25

 159.03kN
Nominal joint capacity in tension as
governed by bolt strength

=3×116.08 = 348.24kN.
Example 2
Find the maximum force that can be
transferred through the double covered
butt joint shown. 20mm dia. Bolts of
grade 4.6 and Fe 410 plates are used.
10mm

16mm

33
(1) (2) (3) 30
40
30
30
30
30
40
(1) (2) (3)
40 60 60 40
Cl 10.3.3 shear capacity of bolt
(in double shear)

Vdsb 
f ub
nn Anb  ns Asb 
 mb 3
f u  410 N / mm 2

f ub  400 N / mm 2

 mb  1.25,

Let nn = 1 and ns = 1
Anb = 0.78x Asb Vdsb = ?
400    2
 1 0.78  20   1 20  
2
Vdsb
1.25  3  4 4 

= 103.314kN

design strength of joint in double shear


=6X103.314 =619.884kN
Design bearing strength of bolt
Cl 10.3.4
2.5kb dtfu
Vdpb 
 mb

kb is smaller of

e p f ub
,  0.25, ,1
3d 0 3d 0 fu
kb =0.6061 for line 3-3

kb =0.6591 for line 1-1 & 2-2

3  (2.5  0.6061 20 16  400)  3  (2.5  0.6591 20 16  400)


Vdpb 
1.25

=971.67kN
Strength of the plate.
(to be checked along all three sections)
Example 3

Two Fe 410 plates 10mm and 18mm thick


are to be jointed by double cover butt
joint. Design the joint for a factored load
of 650kN. 20mm dia. Bolts of grade 4.6
and 8mm thick Fe 410 cover plate are
used.
Example 4

An ISA 100X100X10mm carries a factored


tensile force of 100kN. It is to be jointed
With a 12mm gusset plate. Design a high
Strength bolted joint when
(a) no slip is permitted.
(b) slip is permitted.
Cl 10.4

Assume HSFG bolts of grade 8.8 and of


diameter 16mm.

 f ne K h Anb f 0
Vdsf 
 mf
(a)

0.5 11156.8  0.7  800


Vdsf   35.12kN
1.25

no. of bolts required=100/35.16=2.84 3


(b)
Strength in single shear = ?
Strength in bearing = ?
No of bolts= ?
Welded connection and their design
Welding
 It is a method of connecting two
pieces of metals by heating to
plastic or fluid state with or
without pressure.
 Thus Welding is a fabrication
process that joins materials,
usually metals or thermoplastics,
by causing coalescence.
 Metallurgical bond
Advantages of welding

1. No need for making holes


2. Air tight and water tight joint
3. Joints are economical-splice plate and
bolts are not needed
4. Welded structure are more rigid
5. Welded joints are more aesthetic in
appearance
6. Any type of sections such as built up
sections can be used
Advantages of welding
Contd…
7. Strong joint
8. Practicable even for complicated shapes of
joints. Tubes can be welded easily.
9. Alterations can be done easily
10. Efficiency is more
11. No holes and no concentration of stresses
Disadvantages
1. Requires skilled labors and technicians
2. Inspection is difficult and expensive for important
structures-NDT
3. Distortion of shapes –more precautions
4. Costly equipments needed
5. Prone to cracking due to fatigue loads
6. Brittle fracture
7. Field welding is expensive
8. Power supply may not exist
BASIC WELDING PROCESSES

1. Arc welding - All structural welding-85%

Electric arc by use of electric energy


2. Gas welding -15%
– Oxy-acetylene flame, hydro carbon
welding
- welding and cutting
simple and economical
slow - repair and maintenance work

3. Slot and
4. plug welding -5%, Very rare
FUNDAMENTALS OF WELDING
• Tendency of atoms to bond and form metallic bonds
• Inter diffusion between the materials
• Diffusion in liquid , solid or mixed state
• Welding process needs some form of energy-Heat or
pressure or both

Heat alone applied – eg. Gas Tungsten Arc welding,


Shielded metal arc welding,
Submerged arc welding.
Pressure alone - eg. Cold welding, Roll welding

Both pressure and heat - eg. Resistance welding ,


Friction welding
Shielded Metal Arc Welding
• Coated electrode from gaseous shield to exclude oxygen.

• Also deposits slag in molten metal. Because of less


density floats and shields and slows cooling.

• Coating shields the arc ,coats the molten pool against


oxidation, stabilizing the arc and provides alloying
element -weld metal.

• Type of welding electrode decides strength, ductility and


corrosion resistance.

• Lightly coated and heavily coated

• Automatic or Semi automatic, manual


SHIELDED METAL ARC WELDING
(SMAW) PROCESS

Electrode
holder E41, fy 330, fu 410--510
Metal and slag droplets

Electrode
Coating on electrode-Flux
Arc
stream Gaseous shield
Slag
Curre Molten pool –weld pool
nt Weld
Penetration depth
wire Base metal
Fe410
Direction of welding
ground
Power wire Ref: IS:2879, 1395, 814
supply
unit
TYPES OF JOINTS OR
WELDS

• Joints: Lap, Tee, Butt, edge and


Corner
• Welds: Groove (Butt, corner and
edge),
fillet (Lap and Tee), plug and slot
• Welded joint description - Type
of joint and weld
• Position of welding

(a) Lap joint (b) Tee joint (c) Butt joint (d) Corner joint (d) Edge joint
A – Butt Joints:
Requires full penetration “groove welding”, but it eliminates
eccentricity and more pleasant to view. Suitable for shop welding.

B – Lap Joints:
Is the most common, due to ease of fitting, requires “fillet weld”,
and can be double-sided.

C – Tee Joints:
Useful for fabricating
“Built-up” sections

D – Corner Joints:-

E – Edge joints:-
W-6
COMMON TYPES OF WELDS

(b) Fillet welds


(a) Groove welds
Ends shall be semi
circular

A A A A

Section A-A
Section A-A

(d) Plug weld (c) Slot weld


A) Groove Welds :
Is used to weld members aligned in the same plane.
The weld should have the same strength of the base material
(or even greater).

(a) Groove weld.

B) Fillet Welds :
More popular as they require
no special alignment of pieces, nor
edge preparation.
(b) Fillet weld. W-7
C) Slot Weld :

They can be used in


addition to fillet welds when
more areas of weld are required.

D) Plug Weld :
Same as above

W-8
Groove welds
Selection of a particular type of
groove weld depends

 Size of the plate to be joined


 welding by hand or automatic
 Type of welding equipment
 Accessibility of both sides
 Position of weld
Size of butt weld
 Thickness of connected plate for full penetration

 Depth of penetration for partial penetration

Advantages
High strength, high resistance to impact and cyclic
stress

Disadvantages
High residual stress , edge preparation and proper
aligning
CLASSIFICATION BASED ON POSITION

Backup plate
Shaping of surface and backup plate

(a) Flat
(c) Vertical
(b) Horizontal

(d) Overhead
Horizontal welding and position of rod
TYPICAL EDGE PREPARATION FOR BUTT WELD

Root opening R
(a) Bevel with feathered (b) Bevel with backup plate
edge

R
Land (root face)
R
(c) Bevel with a land (d) Double bevel with a spacer

face reinforcement Face of weld


Penetration
Toe of weld
Heat affected zone

Weld size (leg)


Root reinforcement
Root Root face
Root opening
GROOVE WELD DETAILS

Electrode Included angle

Arc Depth of penetration


Root face

(a) Depth of penetration Root gap


(b) Root gap

Capping run Filling run

Root run

(c) Root run


TYPICAL CONNECTIONS WITH GROOVE WELD

Single bevel groove weld

( a) Corner joint Square groove weld Double V groove weld

(b) Butt joint

Square groove weld

(c) Edge Joint


Fillet welds
• Ease of fabrication and adaptability
• Less precision
• No special edge preparation
• Throat of a weld
• Concave and convex surfaces
Weld and leg size

Face of weld

Theoretical throat (t=0.707s)


s

t
Root of weld Te
CROSS SECTION OF A FILLET WELD

s st
st

(c) Under cutting


(a) Concave (b) Convex
WELD DISTORTION

Three basic dimensional changes


• Transverse shrinkage
• Longitudinal shrinkage
• Angular distortion
Methods to overcome distortion
• Minimize distortion by controlled welding
procedures
• Acceptable limits
• Techniques to remove distortion
WELD DISTORTION-
Figures

a)Transverse shrinkage(b) Angular change (c) Rotational


distortion

(e) Longitudinal bending


distortion
(d) Longitudinal shrinkage (f) Buckling
distortion
WELD SYMBOLS
Symbolic representation of welds

(Ref. IS:813 - 1986 ‘ Scheme of symbols for welding’ )


DEFECTS IN WELDS
• Incomplete fusion
• Porosity
• Inadequate preparation
• Undercutting - Excessive current or long
arc
• Slag inclusion - Failure to remove slag
between runs
• Cracks - Breaks in the weld metal
• Lamellar tearing - Occurs in the base
metal beneath the weld
LACK OF FUSION (OR) INCOMPLETE FUSION

Lack of sidewall fusion

Lack of interpass fusion

Lack of root fusion


LACK OF PENETRATION

Incorrect sequence

Omission of back gouging or


inadequate back gouging with
too small a root gap
TYPICAL EXAMPLES OF UNDERCUT DEFECT.
(a) WIDE AND CURVED, (b) NARROW AND CRACK LIKE

Undercuts Undercuts
Undercuts-
metal
thickness is
smaller

(a) (b)
SLAG INCLUSION

Not cleaned or incorrect


electrode

Slag trapped in
undercut

Narrow
root gap
WELD INSPECTION

Visual inspection
Liquid penetrates
Ultrasonic testing
Radiography, etc

CONNECTION DESIGN
Static strength of welded joint
Type and size of the weld
Manner of welding
Type of electrode used
BUTT WELDS

• Critical form of loading - Tension in


transverse direction

• Yield stress of weld metal and parent metal


in HAZ(Heat affected Zone) is much higher

• Failure always occurs away from the weld

• Toughness and ductility properties are


affected
DIFFERENT TYPES OF BUTT JOINTS

(a) Square (d)Single Bevel


(b) Single V (c) Double V

(g) Single U (h) Single J


(e)Double Bevel (f) Single U

(i)Double J
LOAD APPLIED IN TRANSVERSE
DIRECTION OF BUTT WELD

Longitudinal direction
Transverse direction

(a)
(b)

Load applied in transverse direction Longitudinal shrinkage


DESIGN
• Direct tension or compression
• Design strength same as parent metal strength
• Effective area equals effective length times throat
size
• For full penetration, thickness of weld ,equals
thickness of thinner part of connection
• Partial penetration welds are avoided
• Throat thickness - 5/8 thickness of thinner part
• Average stress concept
• Permissible stresses - Parent metal values
• Site welds - 80% of permissible value
PARTIAL PENETRATION WELD

BUTT WELDING OF MEMBERS WITH


(a)&(b) UNEQUAL THICKNESS (c) UNEQUAL WIDTH
Taper not exceeding 1 in 5
Taper not exceeding 1 in 5

Weld
(a) (b)

Not less than t/4 OR up to


the dimension of thicker
material
t
(c)
FILLET WELDS

Behavior
• Lap joints
• Shear is the main design consideration
• Side fillets and end fillets
• End fillet loaded in tension - high strength and low
ductility
• Side fillet loaded - Limited to weld shear strength -
improved ductility
• Average stress in weld throat
• Fillet weld shape is important for end fillets.
FILLET (A) SIDE WELDS AND (B) END WELDS

(a)
(b)

Fillet welds are stronger in compression than in tension


AVERAGE STRESS IN THE WELD THROAT

11
1 1
11

1 1
Fillet welds are assumed to have a cross section of 45 right
triangle, as shown. The size of the weld is the leg of the triangle,
Denoted as (w). The failure plane (the weakest section) is along the
“throat” of the weld, denoted as
(t); Where (t = 0.707 w). The length of the weld (L)
is the length of the shear plane along the weld.

Effective Area of Fillet Welds:


Aw = te  Lw
where,
Aw = Effective area of weld.
te = Effective throat thickness = 0.707 w
Lw = Effective Length of weld.

W-12
(A) CONNECTIONS WITH SIMPLE WELD DESIGN,
(B) CONNECTIONS WITH DIRECTION- DEPENDENT WELD DESIGN

Tension &
P
Shear

P P

(a) (b)
Table 1 Minimum size of first run or of a single run fillet weld

Thickness of thicker part

Over (mm) Up to and including Minimum size


(mm) (mm)

- 10 3
10 20 5
20 32 6
32 50 8 First run
10 Minimum size of fillet
= ¾t
1.5 mm
Specified size t

(a) (b)

(a) fillet welds on square edge of plate, (b) fillet welds


on round toe of rolled section

Table 2. Value of K for different angles between fusion faces

Angle between 60 - 90 91-100 101-106 107-113 114-120


fusion faces
Constant K 0.70 0.65 0.60 0.55 0.50
END RETURNS

End returns

P P
SLOT AND PLUG WELDS

• Provided along with fillet welds in lap joints


• Strength of a plug or slot weld - allowable stress
and nominal area in the shearing plane

Ends shall be semi circular or


have corners rounded to a
A A radius not less than thickness
of part containing slot
A A

Section A-
A Section A-
(a) Slot weld A

(b) Plug
weld
ECCENTRIC JOINTS
(a) WELDS SUBJECTED TO SHEAR AND TORSION,
(b) WELDS SUBJECTED TO SHEAR AND BENDING
y
M

e P

Pure
x x torsion
Shear and c.g of welds
torsion
(a) S + T

y
e P P

Shear and
bending