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Guided by

Dr. S.Suja Priyadharsini


Assistant Professor- ECE Dept
Anna University Regional Campus- Tirunelveli
Tirunelveli

Submitted by
H.Radhakrishnan
950016801009
ME Applied Electronics(P.T)

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 1


Motivation
In industries carrying out maintenance and repair
works in confined vessel is a common practice.
The deficiency of required oxygen level and
sudden occurrence of toxic gases may cause
severe hazard even death of the workers
Hence a continuous monitoring of the confined
vessel and detection of the toxic gases is
necessary
Giving immediate alert to the concerned
authorities is required to take necessary control
measures and implement rescue activities to safe
guard the working personal.
Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 2
Introduction
 Confined Vessel is one which has narrow entry and exit and is used
for storage of liquid or gaseous substances
 It has a potential hazard of chemical fumes engulfing the work
area. Toxic gases may suddenly enter into vessel from outside
atmosphere or may evolve as a part of the work being carried out.
 Ammonia, Hydrogen sulphide and Methane are some examples of
such toxic gases.
 Whenever such hazard occurs, immediate Communication to the
concerned authorities will help to take appropriate actions to
control the situation.
 Similar Communication to the rescue team such as fire, safety
personal and other disaster management teams in the event of such
an occurrence will be much helpful to the rescue of the personal
caught in the environment
 Internet of Thinks (IoT) offers implementation of these
communications to mobiles and web pages in a user friendly
manner
Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 3
Objective
• Continuous monitoring of the confined space for detecting the
presence of toxic gases inside the vessel.
• Alert the personal working in that location when the presence of
toxic gases is detected.
• Upgrading the Sensing kit developed in first phase by extending
its detection capability for additional toxic gases
• Enabling application specific sensing using IoT to increase
battery life of the sensing kit
• Giving GSM based mobile alerts to the concerned authorities
and rescue teams
• Display of detected gas concentration on web page for
centralized monitoring
• Giving Voice alert through Industrial Public addressing system

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 4


Literature Survey
Sl Title Author Journal Methodology Applied Advantage Disadvantage
No
1 S.Keerthiga, Asian Journal of  This system temperature and Ultrasonic sensor  The machine  Don’t address the toxic
“Accidents F.Anishya Applied Science to detect human body temperature and automatically gets substances and gasses to
Prevention in R.P.Kaaviya Priya and Technology intrusion switched off and protect the employees
Industry using (AJAST),2014  It has modules namely Intruder detection prevents accident.  Possibility for false tripping
IOT” using sonic sensor , Monitoring the room  GSM alert will help of the plant even any other
temperature using thermal sensor , Machine the medical team to object intrudes the sensing
Automation , Safety Alert using GSM be in prepared area
condition to deal the
 The machine automatically turned off upon
victims
human intrusion sensed by the Ultrasonic
sensor.

 In case of any accidents alert is sent to hospital


through GSM
2 “A wireless P. Oikonomou Elsevier Sensors  Chemocapacitor type sensors are used which  The wireless mote
sensing system for A.Botsialas. A, and has specific sorption properties to analytes. way connects the
monitoring the Olziersky,. I. Actuators,2015 They have comb structure with two dielectric sensor to the internet
workplace Kazas, I. layer of Sno2 fabricated on Si wafer. via gateway
environment of an Stratakos,  Very good sensing
 A miniaturized readout electronic system
industrial S.Katsikas, performance with
allows the measurement of the capacitance of
installation” D.Dimas, high repeatability
all sensors on the chip. An AD7746
K.Mermikli,G.Soti and long-term
(AnalogDevices) based data acquisition
ropoulos, stability.
system is used
D.Goustouridis ,  Low power
I.Raptis,  A wireless node based on a RISC consumption.
M.Sanopoulou microcontroller with very low power
consumption is used as communication unit.

 Each mote communicates to a gateway where


the sensor array is placed in the mote.

 The sensor is evaluated under laboratory


condition using computer controlled Labview.

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 5


Literature Survey Cont...
Sl Title Author Journal Methodology Applied Advantage Disadvantage
No
3 “IoT based Riyaj Kazi, International  An ARM microcontroller based system that  Measures the Fire  Don’t measures harmful
Interactive Gaurav Tiwari Conference on monitors temperature, fire and smoke and smoke and give gases
Industrial Home Energy Systems early warning.  The programming in Keil
 The values are updated in web pages
wireless and  Automatic blinds are is lengthy process than
system, Energy Applications  LPC2148 ARM microcontroller with operated based on Arduino IDE programming
management (ICESA ARM7TDMI-S CPU is used temperature sensor  It is a fixed wired power
system and 2015),2015,978- and room lighting is supply system and hence
embedded 1-4673-6817-  Zigbee is used for the communication between controlled depending not portable
data acquisition 9/15/2015 IEEE monitoring and controlling unit. upon the outside
system to display  Keil uVision4 ide and Flash magic are used to ambient thus saves
on web page using write the required code and to flash the ARM energy
GPRS, SMS & E- microcontroller
mail alert”

4 “ZigBee and Sushabhan Elsevier  An Arduino based system that contains  Facilitates remote  The receiving station is
Bluetooth Choudhury International temperature, sound, Motion and metal sensors monitoring of located in a room and
Network based Piyush kuchhal, Conference on addressed towards early warning to farmers environmental communication disturbance
Sensory Data Rajesh Singh Intelligent about the environmental conditions conditions due to obstacles is not
Acquisition ,Anita Computing,  The intrusion in the explained
 It contains a transmitting and receiving station
System” Communication field can be  Implementing in a confined
with zigbee for communication
& Convergence identified remotely space will create
(ICCC-2014)  The sensor values are transmitted and communication hindrance
displayed in smart phone available with the due to obstacles in the path
farmer

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 6


Literature Survey Cont...
Sl Title Author Journal Methodology Applied Advantage Disadvantage
No
5 “Design of Prabodh International  A smart city monitoring and disaster  Has triplicate power  It is not indented for
Disaster Sakhardande, Conference on management system. supply via supply industrial application.
Management Sumeet Hanagal, Internet of mains, battery and  Collection of data from
 It monitors the temperature, humidity and
System using IoT Savita Kulkarni Things and solar. remote locations is difficult.
distance using networked sensors which forms
Based Applications  Has ability to host a  Fully dependent on internet
a data acquisition system.
Interconnected (IOTA), 2016, wi-fi access point only. Lack of internet
Network with 978-1-5090-  These sensors have an unique ID and are which is helpful in accessibility is identified as
Smart City 0044-9/16/2016 connected in star / mesh topology. disaster management one drawback
Monitoring” IEEE
 In normal mode all sensor modules collect
data and in disaster management mode one
module acts as server and receive input from
other modules and offload the data to the next
hosted network

 It uses Arduino as controller and ESP8286


Wi-fi module

6 International  It uses MQ6 gas sensor to monitor LPG gas


“Internet Of Rohan Chandra Journal of and Raspberry pi3 as the processor
Things (Iot) Based Pandey, Manish Creative
Gas Leakage Verma, Lumesh Research
Monitoring And Kumar Sahu, Thoughts
Alerting System Saurabh (IJCRT),2018
With Mq-6 Deshmukh
Sensor”

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 7


Literature Survey Cont...
Sl Title Author Journal Methodology Applied Advantage Disadvantage
No
7 “Internet of E. Pavithra International Journal  It focuses the thermal power plant to monitor  It monitors the air  Other than SOX and NOX
Things based M. Swetha, for Research in Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Sulphur Dioxide pollution from gases are not addressed
Hazardous Gas R. Deepa Applied Science & (SO2) emissions and ensuring it is with in power plant.  It is a fixed arrangement
detection in Power Engineering permissible limit. It addresses air pollution  Immediate alert will specific to monitoring
Plants” Technology form power plants be sent to emissions from power plant
(IJRASET),2016 appropriate chimney and cannot be
 These sensors are placed in chimney
authorities to take used for confined space
 The sensor data is sent to arduino controller. adequate control applications
From arduino the Wi-fi/GSM transmits the measures.
data to a gateway where it is processed and
compared with threshold values

 The result is sent to cloud computing through


MQTT

 Message Queuing Telemetry Transport


(MQTT) used to send the data safely

8 “IOT based Akship International  This system use an AVR microcontroller that  It facilitates the  Atmel studio generates a
Hazardous Gas Agrawal, Research Journal of control the sensor, LCD,GSM and Wi-fi inspection of the HEX code file which is
Detection System Lalit Kumar, Engineering and modules plant without any required to burn in the
using AVR Pavneet Technology interruption of plant microcontroller. The
 It is programmed through Atmel Studio and
Microcontroller” Kumar, Vikas (IRJET),2017 operation or programming is not so
simulated using Proteus
Kumar Jha personnel handy as in arduino IDE
 It is programmed in C and using assembly responsibilities
 Toxic gases are not
language.
 The time required to addressed
 MQ6 sensor is used to detect hazardous gases carry out the
like LPG and combustible gas inspection is
dramatically
 The alert is given through a buzzer and it has a reduced.
LCD display.

 GSM is used to send alert messages

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 8


Literature Survey Cont...
Sl Title Author Journal Methodology Applied Advantage Disadvantage
No
9 “IOT Based Smart R.Vijayalaksh International Journal  It is a drainage monitoring system to address
Detection System mi, Dr. D. for Research in the risk of the drainage cleaning workers.
for Harmful Sengeni Applied Science &
 Three gas sensors of MQ type is used for
Gases in Engineering
Carbon Monoxide, Hydrogen sulphide and
Underground Technology
Methane gases. In addition it has pulse sensor
Sewages” (IJRASET),2017
for heart beat and Ultrasonic sensor

 ARM microcontroller (lpc2138) is used

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 9


Methodology
• Developing a communication kit for GSM based alert
messages and IoT based data update for centralized
monitoring
• Upgrading the “Sensing kit” with sensors for detection of
additional toxic gases Methane and Hydrogen sulphide in
addition to the existing sensors for Ammonia, Smoke and
• Hardware modifications in the “Sensing Kit” for
application specific sensor selection
• Implementation of GSM based Mobile alerts and data
update in web page
• Giving Voice alert through Industrial Public addressing
system

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 10


Methodology Diagram

First Review
Start

Hardware Implementation of “Communication Kit”

Up gradation of the “Sensing Kit”


Second Review

Upgrading the sensing kit with HW modifications of the sensing


additional sensors Kit for sensor selection

Implementation of IoT in Audio alert through public


“Communication Kit” addressing System
Third Review

Mobile alert through GSM Data Update in Web Page through IoT

User Fire &Safety Medical

End

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic


11
Gases
Block Diagram
LCD Buzzer Audio alert

Zigbee Communication Communication Kit GSM Message to User,


Sensing Kit Communication Fire,&Safety Medical

Sensor Array
Application User

Zigbee GSM
Communication Communication

Sensing Kit
Buzzer
LCD

Zigbee
Communication Kit
Analog Out
Module
Audio Out
Relay
Zigbee
s
Module
ULN2003 Relay Driver

Arduino Power Mobile


Supply
Arduino
230/12V

GSM
Module

Power Sensor
Supply s

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 12


Flow Diagram
Start

Select
Sensor

No No No No
NH3 Smoke CH4 H2S

Yes Yes Yes Yes


No No No
No PPM> PPM> PPM> PPM>
Limit Limit Limit Limit

Yes Yes Yes Yes

IoT Boundary
Buzzer GSM IoT

Message Alert to Different DMT Data update in Web Page

End

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 13


Conventional Communication
Production In charge
Conventional Communication
PPC
Control Desk Engineer
OHC

Security cum Emergency control


CSO

Fire & Safety

Fire Tender Ambulance

IoT Communication
Production In charge
Conventional Communication

Control Desk Engineer

OHC
IoT Enabled Kit

Security cum Emergency control


CSO

IoT Enabled Communication


Fire & Safety

Fire Tender Ambulance

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 14


Module Split Up
Module 1:
Hardware Implementation of the “Communication Kit”
with Arduino, Zigbee and GSM Modules.
Module 2:
Upgrading the “Sensing kit” with sensors for detection of
additional toxic gases Methane and Hydrogen sulphide
Hardware modifications in the “Sensing Kit” for
application specific sensor selection
Module 3:
Implementation of GSM based Mobile alerts and data
update in web page
Giving Voice alert through Industrial Public addressing
system
Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 15
Results of Work Completed

• Suitable sensors for detection of Methane and Hydrogen


sulphide is selected. Procurement of MQ 4 and MQ136
sensors is under progress
• The hardware components Arduino Uno, Zigbee and
GSM modules are procured for the communication kit
• The components are fixed on board for further
encapsulating them inside a suitable protective case

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 16


References
• Wei- Han Tao , Ching-Hsiang Tsai, “H2S Sensing Properties of noble metal doped
WO3 thin film sensor fabricated by micromachining”, Elsevier Sensors and Actuators
B: Chemical , 2001
• Mohammad reza Akhondi, Alex , Simon Carlsen, Stig Petersen “Applications of
Wireless Sensor Networks in the Oil, Gas and Resources Industries”, IEEE
International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications 2010
• N.S. Ramgir, S. Kailasa Ganapathi, M. Kaur, N. Datta, K.P. Muthe, D.K. Aswal∗, S.K.
Gupta, J.V. Yakhmi,” Sub-ppm H2S sensing at room temperature using CuO thin
films”, Elsevier Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical , 2010
• Shifeng Fang, Li Da Xu, Senior Member, IEEE, Yunqiang Zhu, Jiaerheng Ahati, Huan
Pei, Jianwu Yan, and Zhihui Liu “An Integrated System for Regional Environmental
Monitoring and Management Based on Internet of Things”, IEEE TRANSACTIONS
ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS, VOL. 10, NO. 2, MAY 2014
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Wireless Sensor Networks”, Advanced Sensor Networks Research Group, Counsil for
Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa. Department of Electrical, Electronic
and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, South Africa. 978-1-4799-4905-
2/14/2014 IEEE
• Sara Amendola, Rossella Lodato, Sabina Manzari, Cecilia Occhiuzzi, and Gaetano
Marrocco, “RFID Technology for IoT-Based Personal Healthcare in Smart Spaces”,
IEEE INTERNET OF THINGS JOURNAL, VOL. 1, NO. 2, APRIL 2014.

Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 17


References Cont …
• C.P. Kruger, G.P. Hancke, “Implementing the Internet of Things Vision in Industrial
Wireless Sensor Networks”, Advanced Sensor Networks Research Group, Counsil for
Scientific and Industrial Research, South Africa. Department of Electrical, Electronic
and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, South Africa. 978-1-4799-4905-
2/14/2014 IEEE
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Dimasd, K. Mermiklid, G. Sotiropoulose, D. Goustouridisc, I. Raptisc, M.
SanopoulouaaInstitute “A wireless sensing system for monitoring the workplace
environment of an industrial installation”, Elsevier Sensors and Actuators B:
Chemical , 2015
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Energy management system and embedded data acquisition system to display on web
page using GPRS, SMS & E-mail alert”, International Conference on Energy Systems
and Applications (ICESA 2015) 2015. 978-1-4673-6817-9/15/2015 IEEE
• E. Pavithra , M. Swetha, R. Deepa, “Internet of Things based Hazardous Gas
detection in Power Plants”, International Journal for Research in Applied Science &
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SYSTEM USING IOT AND RASPBERRY-PI”, International Journal of Research In
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Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 18


References Cont …
• Jesús Martín Talavera , Luis Eduardo Tobón , Jairo Alejandro Gómez , María
Alejandra Culman ,Juan Manuel Aranda , Diana Teresa Parra , Luis Alfredo Quirozb,
Adolfo Hoyos , Luis Ernesto Garreta ,” Review of IoT applications in agro-industrial
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Sensor Based Detection Of Toxic Gases 19