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³Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages,

families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the
promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people.
Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health
policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key
nursing roles.´

-International Council of Nurses

airginia Avenel Henderson

K DOB: Nov. 30, 1897

K Kansas City, Missouri
K 5th of the 8 children
K Dad: Atty. Daniel Henderson
K Mom: Lucy Abbot
K RIP: 99 y/o; March 19, 1996
Nurse and Educator

K 1921: Received Diploma in Nursing from the Army School

of Nursing at Walter Reed Hospital, Washington, DC
K 1921-23: worked as staff nurse at Henry Street aisiting
Nurse Service
K 1923: Teacher at Norfolk Protestant Hospital in airginia
K 1932: BS Degree at Teacher¶s College at Columbia
K 1934: MA Degree
K 1929-1948: Faculty of Columbia University
K 1953: Research associate at Yale University School of
Author and Researcher

K Co-authored the 4th edition of Bertha Harmer¶s V  


K 5th edition includes aH¶s own definition of Nursing

K Her book, V 

 , was published in 1966 and
describes her concept of nursing¶s primary, unique function. It was
reprinted by the National League of Nursing in 1991.

K The sixth edition of the

published in 1978, was coauthored by Henderson.

K Received honorary doctoral degrees

K Mary Tolle Wright Founders Award for Leadership

K First Christianne Reimann Prize

K Received a special citation of honor

K ³Twentieth Century Florence Nightingale´

Historical Influence and Influences

Main Influence:

The ultimate goal of the nurse is to practice

autonomously in helping patients who lack
knowledge, physical strength, or strength of will in
growth toward independence.

Because of this function nurses seek and promote research, education, and work settings
that facilitate this goal.
Historical Evolution and Influences

K a definition/concept rather than a theory

K First, she revised the textbook

  in 1939.
Henderson identifies her work for this text as the source that made her
realize the necessity of being clear about the function of nurses.

K Second, was her involvement as a committee member in a regional

conference of the National Nursing Council in 1946. Her committee work
was incorporated into Esther Lucile Brown¶s 1948 report, ³Nursing for the
Future´. Henderson says this report represented ³ð   

K Third, the American Nurses Association¶s (ANA) 5 year investigation of the

function of the nurse interested Henderson, who was not fully satisfied
with the definition adopted by the ANA in 1955.
Historical Evolution and Influences

K Her ideas about the definition of nursing were influenced by her

nursing education and practice by her students and colleagues at
Columbia University School of Nursing, and by distinguished nursing
leaders of her time.

K First, she participated in the revision of a nursing textbook.

K Second, she was concerned that many states had no provisions for
nursing licensure to ensure safe and competent care for the consumer.
Historical Evolution and Influences

K Henderson recognized the need to be clear about the functions of the

nurse. She believed that a textbook that serves, as main learning source
for nursing practice should present a sound and definitive description
of nursing.

K Henderson was committed to the process of regulating nursing practice

through licensure by each state.
aH¶s definition of Nursing:





airginia Henderson¶s
The Basic Principles in Nursing


K Have basic needs that are component of health.

K Requiring assistance to achieve health and independence or a

peaceful death.

K Mind and body are inseparable and interrelated.

K Considers the biological, psychological, sociological, and

spiritual components.

K The theory presents the patient as a sum of parts with

biopsychosocial needs, and the patient is neither client nor

K Settings in which an individual learns unique pattern for living.

K All external conditions and influences that affect life and development.

K Individuals in relation to families.

K Minimally discusses the impact of the community on the individual and


K Supports tasks of private and public agencies Society wants and expects
nurses to act for individuals who are unable to function independently. In
return she expects society to contribute to nursing education.

K Basic nursing care involves providing conditions under which the patient
can perform the 14 activities unaided

K Definition based on individual¶s ability to function

independently as outlined in the 14 components.

K Nurses need to stress promotion of health and

prevention and cure of disease.

K Good health is a challenge. Affected by age, cultural

background, physical, and intellectual capacities,
and emotional balance Is the individual¶s ability to
meet these needs independently?
1. Breathe normally.
2. Eat and drink adequately.
3. Eliminate body wastes.
4. Move and maintain desirable postures.
5. Sleep and rest.
6. Select suitable clothes-dress and undress.
7. Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and
modifying environment
8. Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument
9. Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.
10. Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions.
11. Worship according to one¶s faith.
12. Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment.
13. Play or participate in various forms of recreation.
14. Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and
health and use the available health facilities.

K Temporarily assisting an individual who lacks the necessary strength, will

and knowledge to satisfy 1 or more of 14 basic needs.

K Assists and supports the individual in life activities and the attainment of

K Nurse serves to make patient ³complete´ ³whole´, or ³independent.´

K Henderson¶s classic definition of nursing:     




K The nurse is expected to carry out physician¶s therapeutic plan

Individualized care is the result of the nurse¶s creativity in planning for
airginia Henderson¶s
The Basic Principles in Nursing


K Independence is valued by the nurse and the patient, more than


K Health has a meaning shared by the society at large.

K Individuals desire health or a peaceful death and will act in such a way
to achieve this.

K Individuals will perform activities leading to health if they have the

knowledge, capacity or will.

K The individual¶s goal and the nurse¶s goal are congruent.

K The 14 basic needs represent nursing¶s basic function.

K Nursing¶s goal may be subsumed into the medical treatment plan.

K The major explicit assumption is Henderson¶s content that the nurse is

an independent practitioner.
airginia Henderson¶s
The Basic Principles in Nursing

V  V      V      

V     V     

K Theories can interrelate concepts in such a way as to create

a difference.

K Theories must be logical in nature.

K Theories should be relatively simply yet generalize.

K Theories can be the bases for the hypothesis that can be

tested or for theory to be explained.

K Theories contribute to and assist in increasing body of

knowledge within discipline through research.

K Theories can be used by practitioner to guide and improve

their practice.

K Theories must be consistent with other validated theses,

laws, principles, but leave open unanswered questions that
need to be investigating.
airginia Henderson¶s
The Basic Principles in Nursing

V  V 
Nursing Process

m Henderson¶s 14 components
m Analysis: Compare data to knowledge base of health and disease.
m Identify individual¶s ability to meet own needs with or without assistance, taking into
consideration strength, will or knowledge.
m Document how the nurse can assist the individual, sick or well.
m Assist the sick or well individual in to performance of activities in meeting human needs to
maintain health, recover from illness, or to aid in peaceful death.
m Henderson¶s 14 components and definition of nursing
m Use the acceptable definition of ;nursing and appropriate laws related to the practice of
m The quality of care is drastically affected by the preparation and native ability of the nursing
personnel rather that the amount of hours of care.
m Successful outcomes of nursing care are based on the speed with which or degree to which
the patient performs independently the activities of daily living.
Case Scenario

Gina, a 79 year old grandmother rushed to the comfort room to urinate. On her
way to the CR she slipped thus, resulting to a hip dislocation.
Upon going to the Emergency Department and underwent x-ray they found out
that she needed to wear braces and have to undergo surgery to replace a
damage hip joint. After a week of wearing braces and taking medications she is
scheduled for an elective surgery.
Nursing Process: Case Scenario


m Breathe normally.
m Eat and drink adequately.
m Eliminate body wastes.
m Move and maintain desirable postures.
m Sleep and rest.
m Select suitable clothes-dress and undress.
m Maintain body temperature within normal range by adjusting clothing and modifying
m Keep the body clean and well groomed and protect the integument
m Avoid dangers in the environment and avoid injuring others.
m Communicate with others in expressing emotions, needs, fears, or opinions.
m Worship according to one¶s faith.
m Work in such a way that there is a sense of accomplishment.
m Play or participate in various forms of recreation.
m Learn, discover, or satisfy the curiosity that leads to normal development and health
and use the available health facilities.
Nursing Process: Case Scenario


Short- term goal:

m Patient will be able to verbalize willingness to demonstrate participation in
m aerbalize understanding of situation or risk-factors and individual treatment
regimen and safety measures.

Long-term goals:
m Identify alternative ways to maintain desired activity level.
m Participate in conditioning or rehabilitation program to enhance ability to
m Demonstrate techniques/behaviors that enable resumption of activities.
m Maintain position of function after surgery and skin integrity as evidenced
by absence of contractures and pressure sores.
Nursing Process: Case Scenario


Doing for the patient (substitutive)

m Support the affected body part/joints using pillows to maintain position of
function and reduced risk of pressure ulcers.
m Assist with treatment of underlying condition causing pain and or dysfunction.
m Administer medication prior to activity as needed for pain relief to permit
maximal effort and involvement in activity.
Helping the patient (supplementary)
m Assist the patient on reposition on a regular schedule (frequent shifting of
m Limit fatigue, maximizing participation.
Working with the patient (complementary)
m Encourage participation
m Schedule activities with adequate rest periods during the day to reduce fatigue
m Encourage participation in self-care, occupational, diversional, and recreational
activities. Enhance self concept and sense of independence.
Application of the Theory

m Nurses function to assist patients in activities of daily living,
especially those who care incapable of doing so because of
debilitating condition.
m One of her long list of contributions is her well known definition of
nursing which calls for the nurse to be an expert and an independent
practitioner being equipped with the right knowledge in basic
nursing care to achieve its goal¶s definition.
m Research is a breakthrough of unending search for the betterment of
patient care.
m Her work has been a foundation for improving the preparation for
nursing. She even emphasized the importance of research in
evaluating and improving the nurses¶ practice.
Theory Derivation
Thank you and Have a nice day! 6