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Diah Permata Sari

1410070100106

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What is diabetes?

Diabetes is a chronic disease in which the body does not make or


properly use insulin, a hormone that is needed to convert sugar,
starches, and other food into energy by moving glucose from
blood into the cells.
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Type 1 Diabetes

ONSET: relatively quick

increased urination increased thirst


SYMPTOMS: tiredness hunger
blurred vision
weight loss

CAUSE: uncertain, likely both genetic and


environmental factors

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Type 2 Diabetes

ONSET: in children
variable timeframe

SYMPTOMS: tired, thirsty, hunger,


increased urination

some children show no


symptoms at diagnosis

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Risk Factors
• Type 1 DM
– Genetic predisposition
• Type 2 DM
– Family History
– Obesity
– Habitual physical inactivity
– Previously identified impaired glucose tolerance
(IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG)
– Hypertension
– Hyperlipidemia

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Pathophysiology

• Type 1 DM
– Type 1 DM is characterized by an absolute
deficiency of insulin due to immune- mediated
destruction of the pancreatic b-cells

– In rare cases the b-cell destruction is not due to


immune mediated reaction (idiopathic type 1 DM)

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Pathophysiology

• Type 2 DM
– Type 2 DM is characterized by the presence of both insulin
resistance (tissue insensitivity) and some degree of insulin
deficiency or b- cell dysfunction

– Type 2 DM occurs when a diabetogenic lifestyle (excessive


calories, inadequate caloric expenditure and obesity) is
superimposed upon a susceptible genotype

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Laboratory Tests

1. Glucosuria
2. Ketonuria
3. Fasting blood glucose
4. Random Blood glucose
5. Glucose tolerance test
6. Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C)
7. Serum Fructosamine

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Clinical Presentation

• Type 1 DM • Type 2 DM
- Polyuria - Patients can be asymptomatic
- Polydipsia - Polyuria
- Polydipsia
- Polyphagia
- Polyphagia
- Weight loss - Fatigue
- Weakness - Weight loss
- Dry skin - Most patients are discovered
- Ketoacidosis while performing urine glucose
screening
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Treatment

General approaches

- Medications
- Dietary and exercise modification
- Regular complication monitoring
- Self monitoring of blood glucose
- Control of BP and lipid level

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