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Advertising by Shruthi Jain and Jaishri Jethwani – Oxford
Advertising by Kazmi and Batra – Excel Books
Advertising and SP by S.L.Gupta and V.V.Ratna
Defined by AMA:
Advertising is any paid form of non-personal
presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or
services by identified sponsor.
Defined by Dorothy Cohen:
Advertising is a business activity, employing creative
techniques to design persuasive communication in mass
media that promotes ideas, goods and services in a manner
consistent with the achievement of the advertiser’s
objectives, the delivery of consumer satisfaction and the
development of social and economic welfare.
Definition by Borden and Marshall:
Advertising consists of those activities by which visual
or oral messages are addressed to selected publics
for the purpose of informing and influencing them to
buy products or services, or to act or to be inclined
favourably towards ideas, persons, trademarks, or
institutions featured.
“Advertising is the mass paid communication of
building brands through persuasive communication
and positioning them in the consumers’ perception
with a constant eye on the market environment and
consumer expectation.”
Difference between Advertising , Publicity and

1. Advertising messages are identified with the

advertiser either by signature or oral statement.
2. Advertising is a commercial transaction
involving pay to publishers, broadcasters or others
whose media are employed.
3. Advertising attracts attention with exaggerated
but ambiguous claims which the product can
Advertising as a Tool of Communication:
1. Advertising is part and parcel of all human activities.
2. People want to communicate, to persuade, to influence and
to lead to some action through their behaviour.
3. Nature itself advertises a lot by attracting humans with its
greenly landscapes, high mountains and valleys.
4. Ads. Are part of human nature to be noticed.
5. Ad. Signs were used extensively used during prehistoric
6. Advt. has evolved as a marketing tool with the industrial
7. It is directed at mass audience. Basically it is a
communication process.
Characteristics of Advertising:

1.Paid Form
2.Non-Personal Presentation
4. Identifiable Sponsor
5. Creative
7. No-direct relation- Advertisement Budget and
increase in sales.
Nature of Advertising:

1. Art (Creativity)

2. Science (Execution)

3. Profession ( Career Opportunities)

4. Discipline (Guide)
Scope of Advertising:

1. Development of Creative Idea

2. Client Service

3. Media Selection
8. Here advertiser is the source who transmits the message
which passes through an appropriate medium like press, TV,
Radio etc.,
9. The message is decoded meaningfully and ultimately
received by the target audience for whom the product is
meant for.
10. The ultimate aim of advt. is to make the target audience
favourably inclined towards the product or service.
11. In this sense, advertising is not ordinary communication
12. Since it is received by a large number of people, through
the mass media it is called MASS COMMUNICATION.
Functions of Advertising:
1. Primary Function 2. Secondary Function
To increase sales volume To encourage salesman
To persuade channel members To furnish information
To assist channel members To create confidence for employee
To increase usage of the product To attract employees
To create brand awareness To instill confidence
in customers
Economic Function, Social Function and Psychological Function
Advertising involves: (Major Institutions)

Controlling Institutions: Government / Competitors

In between - Advertisers
Facilitating Institutions: Ad. Agency, Media,
Research Suppliers
Feed back : Market and Consumer Behaviour
History of Advertising :

A History of Advertising.ppt
History of Indian Advertising.ppt
Important Personalities of Advertising :

F. Wayland Ayer : He was a Pioneer who founded the N.W.Ayer &

Son agency in 1869 – client agency relationship enhanced through
his principles. Forerunner of Modern General Advt. Agency.
Albert Lasker – Head of agency Lord and Thomas –driving force in
developing national advertising - pioneer in copy writing function.
J.Walter Thompson - head of J.Walter Thompson agency –first to
introduce ethical standards in the industry.
Ethics in Advertising:
Like other professions, the profession of advt. also
has a code of ethics which is elaborate and provides
practical guidelines to practitioners. The Advertising
Standard Council of India (ASIC) is a representative body
of people from the world of advt. and also draws experts
form the industry and public domain.

The ASIC has to maintain and enhance public

confidence in advt.
ASIC seeks to ensure that advt. confirms to its code of self
regulation which requires advt. to be :
1.Truthful and fair to consumers and competitors
2. Within the generally accepted standards of decency
3. Not to be used for harmful or hazardous product

The ASIC encourages the public to complain against advt.

which they may be unhappy with for any reason and ensures
that each complaint receives prompt and objective
consideration by an impartial Consumer Complaints
Committee (CCC), which takes into account the view point of
the advertiser, and an appropriate decision is communicated
to all concerned.
The ASIC code include the following:
1,Advertising should be designed as to confirm not only to the laws
but also to the moral, aesthetic, and religious sentiments of the
country in which it is published.
2. Advt. likely to bring contempt or disrepute to the profession should
not be permitted.
3. Advt. should be truthful, avoid distorting facts, and misleading the
public by means of implications and omissions.
4. Advt. should not be permitted to contain exaggerated claims and
that inevitably disappoint the public.
5. Direct comparison with competing brands or firms are in no
circumstances permitted.
6. Indecent, vulgar, suggestive, repulsive, or offensive themes or
treatment should be avoided.
7. No Advt. should offer to refund money paid.
Ethical issues in advertising:

 Deceptive and misleading information

 Missing or false information
 Bait and switch advertising

 Excessive puffery

 Public standards
 What products cannot be advertised in certain media
or at certain times
 Role stereotyping

 Often philosophical issues

 Special Issue: Advertising to children
 Violence

 Sex

 Bad nutrition
 Negative role models

 Trick photography

 Encourage materialism
Advt. & Law:

1. Public Morals and Public Policy : Sec. 292 & 293 of IPC 1860
obstructs dissemination of any obscene matter.
2. The Young Persons (Harmful Publications) Act 1956 prohibits the
dissemination of publications deemed to be harmful to persons
under the age of twenty years.
3. The Indecent Representation of Women (Prohibition) Act :
1986,forbids the depiction of women in indecent manner in mass
4. The Emblems and Names (Prevention of Improper use) Act 1950,
forbids the use of any private party of certain names emblems
etc. (political Dignitaries, trademarks, national emblems etc.
5. The Prevention of Insults to the National Honour Act 1971: forbids
bringing into contempt the national flag or the constitution of
India in any manner.
6. The Drugs and magic Remedies (Objectionable Advt.) Act 1954:
Prohibits advertisements for products and services claiming to
cure certain medical conditions.
7. The IPC 1860 prohibits
The publication of matters connected with unauthorized lotteries,
The publication of appeals using National symbols.

FTC and Lanham Act – USA legal system - Advertising:

Federal Trade Commission Act and Lanham Act have been
enacted by the congress that have greatly affected the advt. trade.
FTC ordains any false advertisement and power to order corrective
advt. And power of fencing in misleading advt.
Under Lanham Act the consumers and competitors have to prove
1. wrong advt., 2. deception in advt., etc.
Legal Systems and Procedure in Advt.:
1. Initiation

2. Interpretation

3. Deception

4. Verification

5. Remediation.