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Curriculum & Material Development

“THE NATURE OF CURRICULUM”

Sri Rejeki (26.09.6.2.154)


Tira Nur Fitria (26.09.6.2.164)
Wulantin Kurnia (26.09.6.2.180)
INTRODUCTION

According to the history of education, the term


'curriculum' was originally related to the concept of a course
of studies followed by a pupil in a teaching institution. The
concept of "curriculum" was used in the English-speaking
tradition as equivalent to the French concept programme
d'études. Nevertheless, in recent decades, the concept of
curriculum has evolved and gained in importance.
A. The Definitions of Curriculum
Curriculum comes from the Latin root, "currere" which means
"to run", which later came to stand as the "course of study.
1. Zais (1976): “Kurikulum sebagai perencanaan pengalaman belajar
adalah semua sarana yang digunakan sekolah untuk menyediakan
kesempatan bagi siswa untuk memperoleh pengalaman belajar yang
diinginkan.”
2. UU No. 20/2003 in National Education System:
“Kurikulum adalah seperangkat rencana dan pengaturan mengenai
tujuan, isi dan bahan pelajaran serta cara yang digunakan sebagai
pedoman penyelenggaraan kegiatan pembelajaran untuk mencapai tujuan
pendidikan tertentu.”
3. Subandijah: Curriculum is an instrument to gain an institutional
goal. It means that curriculum is an important tool in educational
development As an instrument, a curriculum should have contributions to
anticipate the development of science and technology and it should be
adaptive all the time on the science and technology expansion.
4. Nasution: Curriculum is a set of plans and arrangements on the
objectives, content and teaching materials and methods used to guide the
implementation of instructional activities to achieve certain educational
goals.
5. Wardiman: Curriculum is one of the tools to be used to achieve the
objective of education. As curriculum is constructed to anticipate and to
adjust the development of science and technology, it was constantly
transformed in any certain period of time.
6. Richard: Development of curriculum is an essentially practical
activity since it seeks to improve the quality of language teaching trough
the use of systematic planning, development, and review practice in all
aspects of language programs.
We can conclude that:
" Curriculum is the sum total of all learning content, experiences, and
resources that are purposely selected, organized and implemented by
the school in pursuit of its peculiar mandate as a distinct institution of
learning and human development.
Curriculum defines the educational foundations and contents, their
sequencing in relation to the amount of time available for the learning
experiences, the characteristics of the teaching institutions, the
characteristics of the learning experiences, in particular from the point
of view of methods to be used, the resources for learning and
teaching
B. The Development of Curriculum in Indonesia
In the history of Indonesia's education, national
education curriculum has experienced many changes, namely
in the years 1947, 1952, 1964, 1968, 1975, 1984, 1994, 2004 and
the latest is 2006.
The change is a logical consequence of the change
the political system, social, cultural, economic, and science.
The entire national curriculum is designed based on the same
basis, the Pancasila and the 1945.
The 1947, 1952, 1964 (before 1968)

1947 curriculum or Leer Plan or Subject Plan 1947 (Rencana


Pelajaran 1947). At that time, Indonesia's education curriculum in
the Netherlands and Japan education system influenced. Rencana
Pelajaran 1947 organized to replace the Netherlands education system.
The curriculum emphasizes the establishment of the Indonesian
people character.

1952 curriculum or Unravels Subject Plan 1952 (Rencana


Pelajaran Terurai 1952). This leads to the curriculum of national
education system. The 1952 curriculum is that every lesson plan
must consider the content of subjects connected with everyday life.

1964 or Education Plan 1964. It is critically concerned with


science, so that the learning program focused on Pancawardhana:
development of moral, intellectual, emotional/artistic skills, and
physical.
The 1968 Curriculum
The 1968 curiculum is New Style Curriculum called “Kurikulum
Gaya Baru yang Disempurnakan” (Perfect New Style Curriculum).
The curriculum emphasized grouping of subject matter. For
Curriculum 1968 has a goal to form a human Pancasila
sincere, strong, and healthy physical, enhance skills and acumen
physical, moral, moral character, and religious.

The 1975 Curriculum


The principles are: efficiency and effectively, goal oriented,
continuity, behavior psychology (stimulus-response), integrative
approach and long life education . Teaching practitioners assumed
that this curriculum was better than previous one, having clearer
instructional objectives. The method used in the teaching of English
skill advocated the audiolingual method.
The 1984 Curriculum

The 1984 curriculum which was operated from 1984-1993). It is


emphasized students’ active learning, using communicative
approach, which was considered the best approach to the teaching of
English. The essential of this curriculum is: relevancy, development
approach, long life education, flexibility.

It has characteristics, such as: oriented to the instructional goals,


Provide concept of science before exercises. student's active
learning system (Cara Belajar Siswa Aktif, CBSA). CBSA is a
teaching approach that provides the opportunity for students to
actively engage the physical, mental, intellectual, emotional, and
with hope that students get the maximum learning experience, both
in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor.
The 1994 Curriculum

The 1994 curriculum was planned to recognize the


objective of the national education considering of the development
and the development of science and technology in accordance with
the types and level of each education unit.

The major goal of this curriculum is expansion of


compulsory basic education from 6-9 years, the improvement of the
quality the primarily and secondary education and enhancing
learning achievements for all level.
First, a structural approach including 1965 and 1975’s curriculum.
Second, the communicative or meaningful approach in 1984 and
1994’ curriculum. But student load is too heavy because the
number of subjects and substance of each of the subjects is too
much.
The 2004 Curriculum

The 2004 curriculum or the Competence Based Curriculum


(CBC) or “Kurikulum Berbasis Kompetensi (KBK)”, especially in
teaching English as foreign language aimed on developing the
language competency, language model, literacy level, and core of
written and oral language that should achieved by the students.

The main goal of this curriculum especially in English are:


1) to develop the abilty to communicate in oral and written form in
the fourth skill.
2) 2) to increade the awareness of the essential and the importance
of English as a means of communication.
3) 3) to develop the students understanding of the languages and
culture relevance and to enlarge the culture.
The 2006 Curriculum

The 2006 or School Based Curriculum (SBC) or


Curriculum in the Unit Level of Education (KTSP) emphasizes on
the mastery of respective or productive linguistic competence in
spoken and written text.

The spoken texts include transactional and interpersonal


conversation, and simple monologues. The written text includes
simple transactional texts and various genre texts in daily context
of life. In the process of teaching and learning activities, the
teachers should master all the text types and know how to teach the
text using an appropriate approach.
Bila kita lihat dari beberapa aspek yang terdapat dalam KBK maupun KTSP, ada
kesamaan antara keduanya. Kesamaan tersebut diantaranya adalah :

1. Pendekatan pembelajaran berorintasi pada kompetensi (competence based


approach).
2 .Berorientasi pada hasil belajar (learning outcomes) dan keberagaman
3. Penyampaian dalam pembelajaran menggunakan pendekatan dan metode
yang bervariasi
4. Penilaian memperhatikan pada proses dan hasil belajar (authentic
assessment)
5. Sumber belajar bukan hanya guru, tetapi juga sumber belajar lainnya yang
memenuhi unsur edukatif
KTSP Berkarakter
KTSP merupakan kurikulum operasional yang disusun dan dilaksanakan oleh
masing-masing satuan pendidikan. Pengembangannya harus berdasarkan
satuan pendidikan, potensi daerah, atau karakteristik daerah, sosial budaya
masyarakat setempat dan peserta didik.
Satuan pendidikan merupakan pusat pengembangan budaya. KTSP ini
mengembangkan nilai-nilai budaya dan karakter bangsa sebagai satu kesatuan
kegiatan pendidikan yang terjadi di sekolah.
Nilai-nilai yang dimaksud di antaranya: religius, jujur, toleransi, disiplin, kerja
keras, kreatif, mandiri, demokratis, rasa ingin tahu, semangat kebangsaan, cinta
tanah air, menghargai prestasi, komunikatif, cinta damai, gemar membaca, peduli
sosial dan lingkungan, serta tanggung jawab.
Nilai-nilai melingkupi dan terintegrasi dalam seluruh kegiatan pendidikan sebagai
budaya sekolah.
Landasan Penyusunan KTSP
1.Landasan Filosofis
Sekolah sebagai pusat pengembangan budaya tidak terlepas dari nilai-nilai budaya yang
dianut oleh suatu bangsa. Bangsa Indonesia memiliki nilai-nilai budaya yang bersumber dari
Pancasila, sebagai falsafah hidup berbangsa dan bernegara, yang mencakup religius,
kemanusiaan, persatuan, kerakyatan, dan keadilan. Nilai-nilai ini dijadikan dasar filosofis
dalam pengembangan kurikulum sekolah.
1.Landasan Yuridis
Secara yuridis KTSP ini dikembangkan berdasarkan:
•Undang-undang Dasar 1945 Pasal 31 ayat (5) dan Pasal 32 ayat (1).
•Undang-undang Nomor 20 Tahun 2003 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional Bab II Pasal 3,
Pasal 36 ayat (2), Pasal 38 ayat (2).
•Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 19 Tahun 2005 tentang Sistem Pendidikan Nasional Pasal 17
ayat (1).
•Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional nomor 6 Tahun 2007 tentang Perubahan Peraturan
Menteri Pendidikan Nasional dan nomor 24 Tahun 2006 tentang pelaksanaan Standar Isi dan
Standar Kompetensi Lulusan.
Tujuan Penyusunan KTSP
KTSP ini disusun sebagai pedoman bagi komunitas sekolah dalam
menyelenggarakan kegiatan pendidikan yang sesuai dengan
karakteristik sekolah, tujuan pendidikan nasional, dan prinsip-
prinsip pendidikan.

Prinsip Pengembangan KTSP


Pengembangan KTSP ini berpedoman pada prinsip-prinsip berikut
ini.
•Berpusat pada potensi perkembangan kebutuhan dan
kepentingan peserta didik dan lingkungannya
•Beragam dan terpadu
•Tanggap terhadap perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi
dan seni
•Relevan dengan kebutuhan kehidupan
•Menyeluruh dan berkesinambungan
•Belajar sepanjang hayat
•Seimbang antara kepentingan nasional dan daerah
SEBAB-SEBAB KTSP TIDAK DAPAT DI TERAPKAN DI INDONESIA

1. KTSP, Kurikulum yang Tidak Sistematis


evaluasi nasional oleh pemerintah melalui ujian nasional (UN) justru paling
menentukan kelulusan siswa.
2. KTSP Tidak fungsional
1.Kepsek yang kurang Mengerti KTSP
2.Guru yang bermutu berjumlah sedikit
3.Bahasan tentang kurikulum bagi guru terbatas
4.Penataran tentang kurikulum ini yang dilakukan terbatas
5.Buku-buku yang diberikan kepada murid kebanyakan tidak
menunjang keberhasilan kurikulum ini.
6.Guru yang menguasai atau siap dan bisa berkompetisi dalam
kurikulum ini cuma sedikit.
7.Kebanyakan guru-guru hanya merubah nama, format, atau silabi.