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PROJECT MANAGEMENT

to the
Training
on
PROJECT MANAGEMENT
(INCLUDING RISK MANAGEMENT)
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Contents

1. Project Management – Introduction & Definitions.


2. Phases of the Project.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

3. Project planning, scope and limitations.


4. Project Scheduling.
5. Project Team- Roles & Responsibilities.
6. Resource planning, Cost allocation & Cost control.
7. Project Management - Planning and tracking - Tools

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Contents

8. Project review and control


9. Risk analysis in Project Management
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

10. Project Management - Metrics - Analysis and Review


11. Project closure (Post project analysis)
12. Project documentation and presentation

Glossary of terms
Annexures

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Definition

A PROJECT
 What is a project
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

– Defined start and end, specific scope, cost and


duration

– A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a


unique product, service or result

– A series of activities aimed at bringing about


clearly specified objectives within a defined time
period and with a defined budget

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Definition

Project Management is an art of organizing, managing and


controlling the resources in such a way that a Project is completed
within the defined scope, time, quality and cost constraints.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project is a time-bound, one-time activity (or set of activities)


undertaken to create a unique product, process, system or service,
which brings a quantifiable change or value addition.

Project is therefore different from process, which is permanent or


semi-permanent ongoing functional work and is of repeatable in nature.

The management of project and process differs and requires varying


technical skills and philosophy and therefore a need for development
and application of project management arise.

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Definition

Definition # 1: PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge as


defined by the Project Management Institute - PMI):
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and


techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.

Definition # 2: PRINCE2 project management methodology:

The planning, monitoring and control of all aspects of the


project and the motivation of all those involved in it to achieve the
project objectives on time and to the specified cost, quality and
performance.

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Definition

Definition # 3: DIN 69901 (Deutsches Institut für Normung - German


Organization for Standardization):
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project management is the complete set of tasks, techniques, tools


applied during project execution.

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Benefits

Benefits of project management


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Project management is developed to save time


by properly planning a project and considering
all relevant factors which may affect its
outcome

 The benefits have been proven - it saves time


and money - and generates a more successful
outcome …. if guidelines are followed

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Benefits

 Decision-making routes and processes are clearly defined


 Deadlines, costs and resources are controlled
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

systematically
– All processes in the project management activity chain
are coordinated to ensure they remain in harmony with
one another
 The result will help you to get:
– more speed
– greater flexibility
– improved quality

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Benefits

 You will have goal clarity and measurement


 Your resources will be coordinated
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Your risks will be identified and managed


 You will increase the possibilities of time savings
 You will increase the possibilities of cost savings
 You will increase the possibilities of achieving the agreed
outcome
 You will increase the possibilities to deliver projects
successfully

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Achievements

What project management helps you to achieve

 Plan tasks in project


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Avoid dependencies problems


 Reduce risks
 Track progress accurately
 Organize project process and timeline
 Improve stakeholder - staff communication
 Improve management of stakeholders’
expectations
 Complete within budget and on time

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Factors

Project success factors


 Stakeholder involvement
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Executive management support


 Clear statement of requirements
 Proper planning
 Realistic expectations
 Smaller project milestones
 Competent staff
 Ownership
 Clear vision and objectives
 Hard working and focused staff
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Constraints

THE TRIPLE CONSTRAINT


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Quality

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PCM

Project cycle management (PCM)


 Is useful in designing, implementing and
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

monitoring a plan or a project


 A clear concise visual presentation of all the
key components of a plan and a basis for
monitoring
 It clarifies:
– How the project will work
– What it is going to achieve
– What factors relate to its success
– How progress will be measured

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Project Cycle

Programming
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Evaluation Identification

Financin
g
decision
Implementation Formulation

Financing
decision

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Principles

The three PCM principles


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Decision making criteria defined at each phase

 The phases in the cycle are progressive

 Project identification part of structured feedback

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Inclusions

 Scope Management
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Time Management
 Cost Management
 Quality Management
 Human Resources Management
 Communications Management
 Risk Management
 Procurement Management
 Integration Management

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Project Phases

Project initiation/ Feasibility Review/ Conceptual Stage


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project Planning

Project Scheduling

Project Execution

Project Monitoring/ Status Review

Project Control / Testing / Quality Check

Post Project analysis and Project Closure

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Project Phases

From Project Management Life Cycle Point of View-


Define
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Plan

Launch

Manage

Close

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Project Phases

From Six Sigma Philosophy Point of View-


Define
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Measure

Analyse

Improve

Control

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Project Phases

From a New Product Development project Point of View-


Concept
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Feasibility

Definition

Implementation

First Lot Run / Pilot Study

Deployment

Feedback and review

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Project Phases

As per Advanced Product Quality Planning methodology-

Plan and Define


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Product Design and Development

Process Design and Development

Product and Process Validation

Feedback, Assessment and Corrective action

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PROJECT MANAGEMENT Project Phases

 If one carefully looks at any of the above


ways of defining the Project phases, all those
have been developed from the fundamental
principle of “PDCA”, ie.
PLAN – DO – CHECK – ACT cycle.

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Project Planning, Scope and Limitations

Typical contents/ elements of Project plan include -


3.1 Project Name and Project id-
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

3.2 Identification-

The project plan should give the list of key personnel involved in the
project, including their contact details
(Address, Phone, Fax, Email id, etc.). The list should
give the role of the person in the Project (Role could be
Project Manager, Project Leader, Member, etc.)

3.3 Proposed Start Date and End Date.


3.4 Project Organisation chart and Roles & Responsibilities.
3.5 Project Scope, Objectives, Limitations and Constraints.

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Scope Management

 Initiation
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Scope Planning
 Scope Definition
 Scope Verification
 Scope Change Control

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Scope Management

Key Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs:

 Product Description
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Project Charter
 Scope Statement
 Work Breakdown Structure
 Formal Acceptance
 Scope Management Plan

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Time Management

 Activity Definition (Microsoft Project)


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Activity Sequencing (Microsoft Project)


 Activity Duration Estimating
 Schedule Development
 Schedule Control

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Time Management

Key Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs:


 Activity List
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Network Diagram
 Project Schedule
 Schedule Management Plan

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Time Management

Time Management Grid:


Urgency
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Quadrant 1 Quadrant 2
Important but not
Urgent and important
urgent
Importance

"Firefighting" "Quality time"

Quadrant 3 Quadrant 4
Neither urgent nor
Urgent but not important
important
"Distraction" "Time wasting"
There's an old joke when it comes to project management time:

'The first 90 percent of a project schedule takes 10 percent of the time. The last 10
percent takes the other 90 percent of the time'
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Cost Management

 Resource Planning
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Cost Estimating
 Cost Budgeting
 Cost Control

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Cost Management

Key Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs:


 Resource Requirements
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Cost Estimate
 Cost Baseline or Spending Plan
(Microsoft Excel Documents)
 Cost Management Plan

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Cost Management

 Direct Costs
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Indirect Costs
 Ongoing costs

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Cost Management

Year 1 Year 2 Year 3


 Direct Costs  Indirect Costs
– Hardware – Your people’s time
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

– Software and effort


– Contractor fees • Estimated time on
• Estimated hours project
• Hourly Rates per • Estimated cost
contractor
based on hourly
• Various contractor
rates rate
– Training – Other’s time and
effort
– Fanfare
– Opportunity cost
– Other
• What projects or
tasks are NOT
TOTALS going to get done
in order to get this
project done?
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Quality Management

 Quality Planning
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Quality Assurance
 Quality Control

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Quality Management

Key Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs:


 Quality Management Plan
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

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HR Management

 Organizational Planning
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Staff Acquisition
 Team Development

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HR Management

Key Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs:


 Role Assignment Matrix
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Staffing Management Plan


 Organizational Chart
 Project Team Directory

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Communications Management

 Communications Planning
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Information Distribution
 Performance Reporting
 Administrative Closure

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Communications Management

Key Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs:


 Communications Management Plan
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Project Records
 Performance Reports
 Change Requests
 Project Archives
 Formal Acceptance
 Lessons Learned

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Risk Management

 Risk Identification
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Risk Evaluation
 Risk Categorization
 Risk Assessment
 Risk Control

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Risk Management

Key Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs:


 Risk Management Plan
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 FMEA
 Contingency Plans
 Past Experience
 Contractual Terms with Stake Holders

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Risk Management

What is Risk?
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Risk is a Potentially Negative


consequence, which may or may
not happen

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Risk Management

What is Risk Management?


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Good management practice


 Process steps that enable improvement in
decision making
 A logical and systematic approach
 Identifying opportunities

 Avoiding or minimising losses

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Risk Management

What is Risk Management?


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Risk Management is the name given to a


logical and systematic method of
identifying, analysing, treating and
monitoring the risks involved in any
activity or process.

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Risk Management

How is Risk Management used?


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

The Risk Management


process steps are a
There are
generic guide for
any organisation, 7 steps
regardless of the in the RM
process
type of business, activity
or function.

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Risk Management

The basic process steps are:

Establish the context


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Identify the risks

Analyse the risks

Evaluate the risks

Treat the risks

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Risk Management

‘Risk’ is dynamic and subject to constant


change, so the process includes continuing:
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Monitoring and review

and

Communication & consultation

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Risk Management

The Risk Management process:


Establish the context
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

The strategic and organisational context in


which risk management will take place.
For example, the nature of your business, the
risks inherent in your business and your
priorities.

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Risk Management

The Risk Management process:


Identify the risks
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Defining types of risk, for instance, ‘Strategic’


risks to the goals and objectives of the
organisation.
• Identifying the stakeholders, (i.e.,who is
involved or affected).
• Past events, future developments.
Monitor and review

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Risk Management

The Risk Management process:


Analyse the risks
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

How likely is the risk event to happen?


(Probability and frequency?)
What would be the impact, cost or
consequences of that event occurring?
(Economic, political, social?)

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Risk Management

The Risk Management process:


Evaluate the risks
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Rank the risks according to management


priorities, by risk category and rated by
likelihood and possible cost or consequence.
Determine inherent levels of risk.

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Risk Management

Evaluate the risks


After identifying and analysing
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

the risks, you can evaluate.


• What is the likelihood of the risk event
occurring?
•Extreme
•Almost certain •Very high
•Likely What is the •Moderate
•Moderate consequence if •Low
•Unlikely the risk event •Negligible?
•Rare? occurs?

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Risk Management

Evaluate the risks


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

You need to describe or to quantify exactly


what the ‘Likelihood’ and ‘Consequence’
terms means to you.

This helps in ensuring a consistent approach


in future risk assessment and review and
monitoring.

It promotes a common understanding within


the Risk Management Team.

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Risk Management

Evaluate the risks


After establishing ‘Likelihood’ and
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

‘Consequence’ you can use a table like this to


set a level of risk.
Extreme Very high Moderate Low Negligible
Almost
Severe Severe High Major Moderate
certain
Likely Severe High Major Significant Moderate
Moderate High Major Significant Moderate Low
Unlikely Major Significant Moderate Low Very low
Rare Significant Moderate Low Very low Very Low

You must define what these risk levels mean to you.

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Risk Management

The Risk Management process:


Treat the risks
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Develop and implement a plan with specific


counter-measures to address the identified risks.
Consider:
• Priorities (Strategic and operational)
• Resources (human, financial and technical)
• Risk acceptance, (i.e., low risks)

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Risk Management

Treat the risks


Document your risk management plan and describe
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

the reasons behind selecting the risk and for the


treatment chosen.
Record allocated responsibilities, monitoring or
evaluation processes, and assumptions on residual
risk.

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Risk Management

Treating the risks


Low and very low level risks can normally be
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

accepted, subject to on-going monitoring.


All other risks are included in the management
plan.
The plan catalogues the risks, the level of risk,
and describes a treatment.
The treatment is the action proposed, (and
perhaps the resources allocated).

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Risk Management

Risk Profiles are developed as a means of putting


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

risk management into practice at the


Operational level.
A Risk Profile is normally specific. It describes:
• The risk areas
• Assessment of the level of risk
• The countermeasures adopted
• Activation date and review dates
• Means of measuring effectiveness.

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Risk Management

Monitor and review


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

In identifying, prioritising and treating risks,


organisations make assumptions and decisions
based on situations that are subject to change, (e.g.,
the business environment, trading patterns, or
government policies).

Risk Management policies and decisions


must be regularly reviewed.

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Risk Management

The Risk Management process:


Monitor and review
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Risk Managers must monitor activities and


processes to determine the accuracy of planning
assumptions and the effectiveness of the
measures taken to treat the risk.
Methods can include data evaluation, audit,
compliance measurement.

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Risk Management

Who does the Risk Assessment?


Responsibilities must be allocated:
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

•Appoint a Risk Management champion with


appropriate qualifications, including experience
and analytical skills.
•Form a Risk Management Committee,
representative of operational areas.
•Conduct Risk Management Workshops.
•Determine operating procedures.

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Risk Management

Using Risk Management


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

The starting point is the Action Plan:


1. Allocate responsibilities, e.g., a Risk Management
Champion and a working party.
2. Evaluate how Risk Management processes can be
best applied in your national environment.
3. Survey existing skills and do a training needs
assessment.
4. Catalogue existing sources of data or information
that can help in identifying risks.

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Procurement Management

 Procurement Planning
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Solicitation Planning
 Solicitation
 Source Selection
 Contract Administration
 Contract Close-out

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Procurement Management

Key Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs:


 Procurement Management Plan
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Procurement Documents
 Proposals
 Contract
 Contract File
 Formal Acceptance and Closure

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Integration Management

 Project Plan Development


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Project Plan Execution


 Overall Change Control

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Integration Management

Key Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs:


 Project Plan
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Lessons Learned

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Project Planning, Scope and Limitations

3.6 Risk Management plan.


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

3.7 Project status reporting structure.

Sl. Person responsible for Mode Frequency/ Remarks


No. reporting Stage of
reporting

1.

2.

3.

4.

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Project Planning, Scope and Limitations

3.8 Project Schedule.


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

3.9 Quality Assurance and Control.

3.10 Project metrics and the targets

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Project Scheduling

 The important activity under Project Scheduling is to identify


and define the “TASK/ SUB-TASK”, which can be executed by the
person responsible. The Task/ Sub-task is generally defined
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

through a set of “VERB + NOUN”. Examples of task are –

Place a Purchase Order


Prepare the Drawing
Get the Budgetary approval
Develop Tool at the supplier

For arriving at the complete list of task/ sub-tasks (Project break-


down structure), Tree diagram (explained in Section 7) can be
used.

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Project Plan
3-W, 1-H FORMAT
PROJECT SCHEDULE

Department/ Section :
Project ID :
Project Description :
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Project Initiated on:


Project End Date:

Sl. Activity (WHAT) Resp. (WHO) Target (WHEN) HOW Remarks/ Status
No.

1 First level discussion on


the steps involved to Call for CFT
ABCD 01.10.2006
implement XXX discussion

2 Download required tools


Search Engines
KIM & QUEEN 15.10.2006
and earlier projects
3 Second level discussion Meet group
with high level group KL 01.11.2006 incharges with
analysed data
4 Finalising the applicable Brainstorming
GHMB 15.11.2006
tools session with CFT
5 Creation of sample screen Programmer level
AWZR 20.11.2006
work
6 Creation of master screen Team Leader
AQSM 31.12.2006
discussion
7 Identification of vendors MMRQ 31.12.2006 Vendor Evaluation
8 Upload master screens to Through Email &
SHRI 31.12.2006
vendor for data entry Website
9 Validation of data entered GRTY 10.01.2006 QC Group

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GANTT CHART
NATHAN & NATHAN CONSULTANTS PVT. LTD

Road Map for Consultancy and Training Services


PROJECT PERIOD - Two Years

Activity Description Responsibility / Month 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Training of Process Flow Diagram, FMEA and CP NNCPL

Identification of products for application of above NNCPL


Phase 1 Guidance for documentation of PFD, FMEA, CP and its
NNCPL
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

linkage
Guidance for periodic review of FMEA and CB based on
NNCPL
customer compliants and internal non-conformances

Training on Measurement System Analysis NNCPL/ORG


Identification of Measurement systems and applicable tools
of MSA NNCPL/ORG

Guidance for implementation and analysis of MSA Results NNCPL

Training on Statistical Process Control (SPC) NNCPL


Phase 2
Identification of Areas/ Parameters for SPC implementation NNCPL/ORG

Guidance for Implementation and analysis of SPC Results NNCPL

Training on Problem Solving Activites - 8D Approach NNCPL

Implementation of 8D Approach by taking specific problems NNCPL/ORG

Training on APQP and PPAP NNCPL


Development and Change Control Process in line with
Phase 3 NNCPL/ORG
APQP and PPAP
Guidance for implementing one full cycle of APQP and
NNCPL/ORG
PPAP
Training on optimisation tools - DOE (Including ANOVA) NNCPL
Phase 4
Guidance on implementing DOE by taking pilot projects NNCPL

Training on Value Stream Mapping NNCPL

Mistake Proofing NNCPL/ORG

Single Minute Exchange of Dies (SMED) NNCPL/ORG

5-S NNCPL
Phase 5
Value Engineering NNCPL

NNCPL/ORG
Identifying areas for implementing the above tools

NNCPL
Guidance for Implementing the above tools
Training on DMAIC methodology NNCPL

Training on Objective Deployment and Balance Scorecard NNCPL


Phase 6 Technique
Training on 6Sigma Green Belt Tools NNCPL

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GANTT CHART

Graphical representation of the project plan


It is an estimate only.
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Very useful for Management level discussion


Customer prefers this way of project planning
Indicates project delays promptly
Micro level activity can be linked to the overall plan

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CRITICAL PATH METHOD

Doors windows

5
T=20 days
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Structure & RCC roofing


Walls construction
Foundation Plastering, Finish, whitewash
Complete
1 2 3 4 6 10
T=25 days
T=30 days T=20 days

1 2 = 20
Plumbing Trial tests
= 30 7 9
2 3 70 days
T=15 days T=5 days
= 20
3 4 Trial tests
Electrical works
= 20
4 5 10
= 25 8
4 6 10 T=10 days
25 days
= 20
4 7 9 10
= 10
4 8 9 10

Annexure -3 CPM CHART

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CRITICAL PATH METHOD

 Focuses on completion of Simultaneous activities

 The longest path for completion of the work is


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

considered to be critical.

 As simultaneous activities are planned Slack time


will give cushion for working.

 CPM is a operational research technique which is very


useful for project time estimate.

 For CRASHING the total duration of the project, this


tool can be effectively used.

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Project Team, Role & Responsibilities

Team Stages and Dynamics

 Teams – Collection of Individuals.


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Building of a Team- Informal introduction of


each member.
 Team Progress- Goals/Targets of the individuals.

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Project Team, Role & Responsibilities

Leadership Skills:
 Vision and Strategy
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 Establishing Direction
 Aligning People
 Communicating
 Negotiating
 Motivating and Inspiring
 Influencing Organizations
 Overcoming Barriers to Change
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Project Team, Role & Responsibilities

Project manager attributes


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 Leader & manager  Knowledgeable about


 Facilitator, coordinator the organization
 Communicator  Political sensitivity
 Credibility: Technical/  Conflict: sense, confront,
Administrative resolve
 Work under pressure  Can deal with stress,
 Goal-oriented chaos, ambiguity
 Innovator  Planning and follow-
through
 Versatilist
 Ethical dilemmas
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Project Team, Role & Responsibilities

Project manager duties


 Reports to senior management
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 Communicates with users


 Plans and schedules
 Obtains and allocates resources
 Controls risks
 Manages people
 Coordinates
 Implements quality assurance
 Controls the budget
 Delivers results

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Project Team, Role & Responsibilities

General Management Skills:


 Planning
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 Finance and Accounting


 Personnel Administration
 Technology
 Organizational Development
 Delegation
 Team Building
 Conflict Management
 Solving Problems
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Project Team, Role & Responsibilities

Communications Skills:
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 Writing
 Listening
 Speaking
 Presenting
 Media Relations
 Meeting Management

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Project Review & Control

Typical elements to be covered during the review –

a)Status of the project (whether the progress of the project is as


per the plan). This feedback has to be provided based on the
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project schedule and the specific tasks that should have been
completed by that time.

b) Any critical steps, that would affect the overall


project schedule

c)Any risk factors – Status of the various risk elements that have
been identified during the Project planning stage have to be
provided for review

d)Cost factors

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Product Development- Status Review Report

Report for the month of :


Whether Remar
Sl. Part No. Customer Commitment Any Any critical Whether ks/
No & Rev. (3) date to the quality the steps, the Action
. level (2) customer (4) risk progress of which will project plan in
case
the project
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

(1) (5) affect the cost is of


is as per “No”
customer within to
the time
schedule?
schedule? the questi
ons 5
(6) (7) budget? to 8?
(8)

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Project Management Metrics

Analysis and Review

Typical metrics that can be monitored to evaluate the


effectiveness and efficiency of the Project Management include
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On Time: Project Plan Vs Achieved.


On Time completion of the specific tasks
On Quality: Customer Requirement Vs. the Actual
output.
On Quality: First-time-Right.
On Risk: Risk identified and mitigated.

Financial related

Timely allocation of fund.


Fund utilization – Budget Vs Actual.
Manhours used – Plan Vs Actual.
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Project Closure- Post Project Analysis

A typical template for Post Project Analysis report


can include the following -
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11.1 Team feedback

Team Difficulties faced / Feedback / Suggestions


Member

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Project Closure- Post Project Analysis

11.2 Customer Feedback / Complaints /Suggestions


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Sl Customer Feedback / Remedial Action Taken Person


No Complaints / Suggestions Responsible

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Project Closure- Post Project Analysis

11.5 Analysis of the Metrics


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Metric Description Target set during Achieved (at Actions taken/ planned
the beginning of the end of (in case of non-
the project the project) achievement)

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Project Closure- Post Project Analysis

11.6 Overall Summary


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Things Gone Right:

Things Gone Wrong:

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Laws of Project Management

 No major project is ever installed on


time, within budget, or with the same
staff that started it. Yours will not be the
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first.
 Projects progress quickly until they
become 90% complete, then they remain
at 90% complete forever.
 When things are going well, something
will go wrong.
 When things just cannot get any worse,
they will.
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Laws of Project Management

 When things appear to be going better, you have


overlooked something.
 No system is ever completely debugged. Attempts to
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debug a system inevitably introduce new bugs that are


even harder to find.
 A carelessly planned project will take three times
longer to complete than expected
 A carefully planned project will take only twice as long.
 Project teams detest progress reporting because it
vividly manifests their lack of progress.

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People’s Problems

 2/3 of project problems are people related


 You will find many operational leaders
demonstrate a “just do-it” mentality. While that
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may be effective in some environments, this is


NOT effective in managing change.
 There will always be conflict over goals and
scope, resources and between departments
 You are likely to find a lack of understanding
basic project management methods
 Some people will never get along

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Destructive Team Members Profile

 The Tank: a person who dominates a


discussion or issue by brute force of
personality. When they present, they
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

speak as an authority. When dealing with


a project and defining new solutions,
these types of people can be destructive
to the process of open discussion and
consideration of alternatives.
– Solution: thank them for their opinion, then
ask if there are some other perspectives
from other team members.

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Destructive Team Members Profile

 The Grenade: The conversation will be


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

going along fine and all of the sudden, a


team member lobs out a discussion-
ending comment.
– Solution: Address the comment head on and
suggest that the grenade thrower refrain
from comments that will upend conversation
of alternatives.

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Destructive Team Members Profile

 The Think-they-know-it-all: Much like the


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tank.
– Solution: Same as Grenade.

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Destructive Team Members Profile

 The Maybe Person: This is the person


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

who cannot commit to any position or


issue. They take refuge in ambiguity.
– Solution: On a project team, you need to help
them commit. Give them simple alternatives
and ask them to decide.

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Destructive Team Members Profile

 The No Person: This is your general


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

naysayer. Nothing will work, no matter


what.
– Solution: Help to see that no is not an option.
Define the alternatives.

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Destructive Team Members Profile

 The Sniper: This is a destructive force in a


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

team. The Sniper tenders up negative


comments within the team that negate or
attack ideas.
– Solution: address the behavior immediately
and let them know that comments like that
are unacceptable based on team norms.

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Destructive Team Members Profile

 The Yes Person: While less negative, this


PROJECT MANAGEMENT

person is so agreeable that they negate


their influence through a lack of objective
analysis. They are more eager to please
than they are to offer objective
alternatives.
– Solution: Point out that you appreciate their
positive outlook, but they need to explore
options more thoroughly if they want to gain
credibility with the group.
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Destructive Team Members Profile

 The Traitor: Team member speaks very


little in meetings, or sometimes
disagrees, and spends times out of
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

meetings lobbying for alternative


positions or arguing decisions made by
the team
– Solution: Establish team rules early that
state that issues are dealt with in team
meetings and this behavior is not
acceptable. When it is uncovered, PM
addresses it in the meeting or, if necessary,
in private
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Destructive Team Members Profile

 The End Arounder: Team member who


goes around team and PM to another
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

supervisor or administrator and


complains, lobbies or takes alternative
positions to team.
– Solution: Identify the behavior in team
development and make it known it is not
acceptable. Get all administrators and
supervisors to suppress the behavior if it
occurs. PM should call it when it’s seen and
the Project Sponsor should nip it in bud.
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Destructive Team Members Profile

A man who knows not and knows not that he knows not
is ignorant— teach him
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

A man who knows not and knows that he knows is


dangerous------------avoid him

A man who knows and knows not that he knows is


asleep------------------wake him

A man who knows and knows that he knows is wise ---------


-----------------follow him

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Limitations

 PM works when there is buy-in for the methods


and process
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

 It does not work when


– buy-in is lacking or there is not support for the
methods by executives
– ‘end arounds’ are tolerated
– influential players operate project business outside
the project
– decisions made by project teams are not supported
– charters, schedules and other work products of the
team are not supported

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Project Documentation & Presentation

The typical documentation to be maintained as part of the


Project Management include –
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Original background information.

Customer/ Management inputs/


Specifications.

Feasibility reports.

Project plan.

Project schedule.

Budget, financial approvals, Return on


Investment analysis

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Project Documentation & Presentation

The typical documentation to be maintained as part of the


Project Management include –
PROJECT MANAGEMENT

Competency/ training plan and evidence of


provision of training.
Project status tracking reports.

Periodic project review reports.

Reports of the metrics.

Post project anlaysis reports.

Project presentation reports.

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PROJECT MANAGEMENT

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