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UNIT 7.

0
WORKPLACE ENVIRONMENT AND
ERGONOMICS
[CLO4,A4]

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


COURSE CONTENT
7.1 KNOW THE REQUIREMENT OF WORKPLACE
AND ERGONOMICS

7.2 UNDERSTAND WORKPLACE ENVIRONMENT

7.3 UNDERSTAND WORKPLACE ERGONOMICS

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


TOPIC 7.1
KNOW THE REQUIREMENT
OF WORKPLACE AND
ERGONOMICS

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


LEGAL REQUIREMENTS OF WORKPLACE
ENVIRONMENT AND ERGONOMICS
DETAILS STATED IN RELEVENT TO WORKPLACE
NO. LEGAL ASPECT
LEGAL ENVIRONMENT AND ERGONOMICS
The 3RD objective of OSH :
- To promote an occupational
Objective of
1 Sec. 4 OSHA 1994 environment for persons at work which is
OSHA
adapted to their physiological and
psychological needs.
Safety and ………to prepare …. a written statement of
2 health Sec. 16 OSHA 1994 general policy with respect to the safety
(S&H) Policy and health at work.
Sec. 15 OSHA 1994 ..duty extends include in particular :
a) Provision and maintenance of plant…
b) Making arrangement…
Functions of
3
SHO
Reg. (18) Safety and ... to investigate new miss ... to collect,
Health Officer under analyse and maintain statistics on any
OSHA 1994 accident

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


TOPIC 7.2
UNDERSTAND WORKPLACE
ENVIRONMENT

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND RESPIRATORY
LEVEL
 New phenomenon related to occupancy of in a modern
building
 Diseases arising from occupancy in a building with poor
indoor air quality:
 Sick building syndrome
 Tight building syndrome
 Poor indoor air quality exist because of :
 Extremely cold/hot temperature
 Low/high humidity
 Lack of ventilation
 Uncomfortable odours
 Existence of dirt and organisms
 Existence of toxic chemicals
 Existence Prepared
of spores, pollen etc.
by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli
CONT…
 CRITERIA OF GOOD INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND
RESPIRATORY LEVEL:
 Free from disturbances
 Enabling work or recreational activities without
physical or mental discomfort
 Oxygen supply : 20 – 21 %
 Air temperature : 23 – 25OC
 Relative humidity : 30 – 70 %
 Air flow : 150 mm/sec or 30 Feet/Min
 Physical activities
 Smell
 Micro-organisms
 Vibration and noise
 Lighting etc.
Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli
LIGHTING AND SIGHTEDNESS
Proper workplace lighting is essential to any good
business:
 it allows employees to comfortably see what they’re doing,
without straining their eyes or their bodies
 it makes work easier and more productive
 it draws attention to hazardous operations and equipment
 it helps prevent costly errors and accidents

To ensure lighting is suitable and sufficient, several aspects of


lighting and the workplace need to be considered. These
include:

 lighting design
 type of work
 the work environment
Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli
CONT…
The type of lighting installation chosen depends on:

 its suitability for use;


 whether it is safe for use;
 the size of area to be covered;
 the purpose for which it will be used

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
 There are SIX (6) main factors that influence how hot or
cold we feel.

1. air temperature
2. humidity
3. radiant heat
4. air speed
5. physical activity
6. clothing

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli
Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin
Zulkifli
NOISE AND HEARING
 Decibel level of common sound

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


CONT…
 Permissible noise exposures

 Control of noise hazard:


I. Eliminate the source of noise as far as reasonably practicable
II. Substitute quieter plant or processes: use quieter plant or processes;
modify the plant or process to reduce noise.
III. Isolate the source of noise from people by using distance.
IV. Engineering control with install barriers, enclosures, and sound-
absorbing surfaces.
V. Administrative control measures: organize schedules so that noisy work
is done when few workers are present; provide quiet areas for rest
breaks; limit time workers spend in noisy areas.
VI. PPE (hearing protector) provided among workers.
Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli
TOPIC 7.3
UNDERSTAND WORKPLACE
ERGONOMICS

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


PRINCIPLES OF ERGONOMICS
Derived from two Greek words:
“Nomoi” meaning natural laws
“Ergon” meaning work

 Ergonomics literally means “the natural laws of work”

 Is the scientific discipline concerned with the


understanding of interactions among humans and other
elements of a system, and the profession that applies
theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to
optimize human well-being and overall system
performance.
- International Ergonomics Association (IEA)

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


Cont…
TWO (2) elements at work:
1) Static work: musculoskeletal effort required to hold a certain position,
even a comfortable one. Example: sit & work at computers; keeping head
and torso upright requires small or great amounts of static work depending
on the efficiency of the body positions we chose.

2) Force: amount of tension our muscles generate. Example: tilting your head
forward or backward from a neutral, vertical position quadruples the
amount of force acting on your lower neck vertebrae.

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF SEATING
WORKSTATION

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


Cont…

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


COMPARE DESIGN OF SEATING

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BASIS SELECTION OF WORKSTATION
FURNITURE
 Ergonomic furniture should be designed to facilitate task
performance, minimize fatigue and injury by fitting
equipment to the body size, strength and range of motion of
the user.

 The selection of workstation furniture should be basis


specifically to eliminate:

(a) static or awkward posture,


(b) repetitive motion,
(c) poor access or inadequate clearance and excessive reach,
(d) display that are difficult to read and understand, and
(e) controls that are confusing to operate or require too much force.

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


SEATING IN USE

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


SEATING AND WORKSTATION LAYOUT

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


ERGONOMIC WORKPLACE RISKS
 Segmental vibration (Hand-arm vibration (HAV) ) – Is typically
associated with operating power tools. Exposure occurs when the
tool vibrations are transmitted to the hand and arm.

 Heat stress – Workers who are exposed to extreme heat or work in


hot environments may be at risk of heat stress. Exposure to extreme
heat can result in occupational illnesses and injuries. Heat stress can
result in heat stroke or heat exhaustion.

Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli


Cont…
 Cold stress - Is a very serious condition that occurs when
the body can no longer maintain a normal temperature.
The results can be serious cold-related illnesses and
injuries, permanent tissue damage or death. Cold
environments are defined as work conditions with low
temperatures, high wind speed, humidity, and/or contact
with cold water or surfaces.

 Whole body vibration (WBV) – is typically associated with


standing or sitting on a vibrating surface. WBV exposure
occurs when vibrations are transmitted usually through
the feet if standing, or the legs and hips if seated. WBV
can affect the entire body, including internal organs.
Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli
Prepared by Ahmad Zawawi Bin Zulkifli