Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 40

DESIGN OF UNDERGROUND DRAINAGE SYSTEM

FOR THE MACHILIPATNAM MAIN ROAD

Under the Guidance of:


K.V.G.M.Sree Ram., M.Tech

By:
T.Sai Durga - 15MQ1A0103
G.Sai Krishna - 15MQ1A0115
M.Sruthi Madhuri - 15MQ1A0102
Md.Saleem - 15MQ1A0122
CONTENTS:
Abstract
Introduction
Need of project
Literature Survey

Objectives

Methodology

Plan of the project

Design of sewer

Progress of work
ABSTRACT:
India is a Developing country it needs to adopt new technologies to develop fast in every sector. In our
country surface drainage system is mostly used to clear the rain water from roads, sewage from houses
and business area etc., In some cases it observed that this surface drainage system fails to clear the
water because of increase sewage quantity due to heavy rains and solid waste clogging in drains
because of these conditions water comes out the drains and stagnates on road.
Machilipatnam main road is the best example for this real time situation. The Water always stagnates
on the roads of Machilipatnam even if there is a small raining condition. The drainage water and rain
water comes out onto the main road sometimes the depth of stagnated water is up to 2 feet. The
existing drainage facility can not clear this rain water completely. Our main aim is to solve this real-
time problem by designing an underground drainage system for the main road of Machilipatnam. It is
difficult to provide underground drainage pipes by destroying and reconstruct the well existing road
facilities. To overcome this problem trenchless technology could help to construct the underground
drainage pipes without disturbing the existing facilities. By constructing this drainage system the
problem of water stagnation on road can be avoided completely even if population increases, sewage
quantity increases. This underground drainage system can serve better.
INTRODUCTION:
• An efficient drainage system should always be considered when it comes to even making
improvements in the property. This can even prevent a number of undesirable problems
occurring as well as protecting the health of the inhabitants of the house.
• This underground drainage system is a proper solution in collecting excess water and
transporting it through underground pipes to a proper disposal area.
• Sewage water is passed through these underground channels which do not even make it look
or smell dirty.
NEED OF PROJECT:
• The main need of the project is to keep the roads out of water when there is a heavy rains,
floods.
• Due to peak flow the surface drainage cant store sewage and storm water.
• As there is imperfect drainage system for the town there will be unhygienic conditions. We
have to provide proper velocity and discharge for the sewage so that it would not stagnate.
LITERATURE REVIEW:
1.International Journal Of Advance Research, Ideas& Innovations In Technology, Under
Drainage Monitoring System.
India has announced a project of making 100 smart cities. For making a smart city one
needs to consider many parameters such as smart water, smart electricity, smart transportation
etc. There will be a need of smart underground infrastructure which includes underground water
pipelines, communication cables, gas pipelines, electric flow, etc. As most of the cities in India
have adopted underground drainage system, it is very important that this system should work in
a proper manner to keep the city clean, safe and healthy. If they fail to maintain the drainage
system the pure water may get contaminated with drainage water and can spread infectious
diseases. This project represents the implementation and design functions for monitoring and
managing underground drainage system with different approaches. It also gives a description of
water wise system and detection method to detect leakage defects in sewer pipeline. Also, some
part of condition rating model for underground Infrastructure Sustainable Water Mains and
Intelligent system for underground pipeline assessment, rehabilitation and management are
explained.
2.International research journal of engineering & technology(IRJET),Hydraulic design & analysis of
under ground drainage system.
During early years of designing conveyance system, manual calculations were practiced
which was laborious to handle the data and results. Now a days, specific software's are
developed to minimize the time for calculation and improved environments for documentation
and presentations. One of such software is given by Bentley’s products named ‘SewerGEMS’.
The environment of ‘SewerGEMS’ software emphasis on creating set of sewer networks
alignments, alternatives such as physical alternative, design alternative etc. The computation of
design and analysis for different scenarios is possible by adopting ‘SewerGEMS’ Software. In
the proposed paper, the ‘SewerGEMS’ software is used as a design tool to have amicable results
for analysing sewer network for a Zone in Tumkur city. Initial data was provided by city
municipality, comprised of parameters related to water supply, number of wards with their
population distributions, topography and source of sewage. The sewer network is designed by
considering the local statutory body regulations along with the commercially available materials.
Utilizing these data, analysis was performed to simulate hydraulic conditions of sewers. In order
to assess compatibility to accept the outputs of the software results; manual calculations are
carried out with the aid of ‘Microsoft Excel’. The variations of the output parameters are
analysed and compared with manual calculations. The results are found in similar nature with
slight variations in physical values. Proposed work benefits academics and practitioners
(municipal engineers, consultants and contractors) to prioritize plans for forth coming localities
which are in need of underground drainage system.
3.IJSRD- INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENTS/VOLUME -4 ,
ISSUE -04,2016,DESIGN OF UNDER GROUND DRAINAGE SYSTEM.
Since last decade Infrastructure development has been taken place all over Gujarat
because of this migration of people from villages to town are also increase and reach up to 50%
of world population leaving in Towns. It also predicted that about 70 % of world population will
be leaving in cities by 2050. So development of the town occurs at very faster rate. The study
guideline for majority of towns for implementation of underground drainage projects.
OBJECTIVES OF THE PROJECT:
• To provide a effective drainage design so that it would be helpful to the society.
• To make a drainage design that will be useful for the further developments of the town
and increase in population.
• A drainage system that would resist any type of rainfall or floods which may be small or
large.
• A hygienic collection and transportation of sewage.
Methodology
Plan of the Project:
Step wise Procedure adopted for the project is follows:
Collection of population data and forecasting of population
Collection of meteorological data to calculate precipitation quantity
Collection of elevation data by surveying using total station
Collection of ground water table levels
Collection of Daily sewage data
Calculation of catchment area for the sewage and precipitation
Design of under ground drainage system
TOTAL WARD WISE DATA FOR
MACHILIPATNAM
POPULATION OF THE SELECTED AREA FOR MACHILIPATNAM
WARD NO POPULATI ON AREA(Hectors )
1 3546 73.79
2 4258 41.91
3 4661 51.86
4 3960 49.95
6 3625 52.75
10 4386 35.57
11 4054 9.71
13 3748 15.76
14 3688 19.46
15 4653 25.87
33 4073 17.97
34 3973 37.5
35 3873 21.83
36 3663 14.67
37 4087 18.48
38 4133 16.98
39 4092 15.36
40 4066 19.34
41 4524 35.79
42 4567 22.75
POPULATION FORECASTING:
1. Arthematic Increase Method
2. Geometric Increase Method
3. Incremental Increase Method
4. Decrease in Rate of Growth Method
1. Arthematic Increase Method
Year Population Increase in x̄=31362/3
Population =10,454
1981 1,38,530
1991 1,59,110 20580
2001 1,79,353 20243
2011 1,69,892 -9461

Pn =Po +nx̄
Population Forecast after 1 Decade From 2011 i.e.; 2021
P2021=169892+1(10454)
=180346
• Population Forecast after 1 Decade From 2011 i.e.; 2021
P2021=169892+1(10454)
=180346
• Population Forecast after 2 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2031
P2031=169892+2(10454)
=190800
• Population Forecast after 3 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2041
P2041 =169892+3(10454)
=201254
• Population Forecast after 4 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2051
P2051 =169892+4(10454)
=211708
2. Geometric Increase Method:
Year Population Increase in Percentage
Population increase in
Population
1981 1,38,530
1991 1,59,110 20580 20580/138530*1
00=14.85%
2001 1,79,353 20243 20243/159110*10
0=12.72%
2011 1,69,892 9461 9461/179353*10
0=5.27%
3
r= 14.85 ∗ 12.72 ∗ 5.27
=9.98%
Pn =P(1+r/100)n
• Population Forecast after 1 Decade From 2011 i.e; 20210
P2021 =169892(1+9.98/100)1
=186847
• Population Forecast after 2 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2031
P2031 =169892(1+9.98/100)2
=205494
• Population Forecast after 3 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2041
P2041 =169892(1+9.98/100)3
=226002
• Population Forecast after 4 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2051
P2051 =169892(1+9.98/100)4
=248558
3. Incremental Increase Method:

Year Population Increase In Incremental


Population Increase in
Population
1981 138530
1991 159110 20580
2001 179110 20243 -337
2011 169892 9461 -10782
X̄=10454 Y =5559

Pn =Po +nx̄+ n(n+1)/2*y


• Population Forecast after 1 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2021
P2021 =169892 + (1*10454) + 1*(1+1)/2*(-5559)
=174787
• Population Forecast after 2 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2031
P2031 =169892 + (2*10454)+2*(2+1)/2*(-5559)
=190800-16677
=174123
• Population Forecast after 3 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2041
P2041 =169892 + (3*10454) + 3*(3+1)/2*(-5559)
=201254-33354
=167900
• Population Forecast after 4 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2051
P2051 =169892 + (4*10454) + 4*(4+1)/2*(-5559)
=211708-55590
=156118
4. DECREASE IN RATE OF GROWTH METHOD:

Year Population Increase in Percentage increase in Decrease in


Population population population
increase
1981 1,38,530
1991 1,59,110 20580 20580/138530*100=
14.86%
2001 1,79,353 20243 20243/159110*100= 14.86-

12.72% 12.72=+2.14%

2011 1,69,892 9461 9461/179353*100= 12.72-5.27=7.45%


5.27%
• Pn =The population at end of last known census + (Population increase in last known
census.
• Average decrease in the % decrease)Population at the end of last known census.
• Population Forecast after 1 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2021
P2021 =169892 + ((5.27-4.79)/100)*169892
=170707
• Population Forecast after 2 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2031
P2031=170707 + ((0.48-4.79)/100)*170707
=163349
• Population Forecast after 3 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2041
P2041=163349 + ((4.31-4.79)/100)*163349
=148484
• Population Forecast after 4 Decade From 2011 i.e; 2051
P2051=148484 + ((-9.1-4.79)/100)*148484
=127859
RAINFALL DATA:
• To know the amount of rainfall.

KONERU CENTER MACHILIPATNAM BUS STATION


RAIN FALL DATA FROM 1901-2010 FOR
MACHILIPATNAM
YEAR Rainfall in YEAR Rainfall in YEAR Rainfall in YEAR Rainfall in YEAR Rainfall in
YEAR Rainfall in mm mm
mm mm mm mm
Rainfall in mm

0
1000
1200
1600
1800
2000

200
400
600
800
1400
1960
1961
1962
1963
1964
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
year

1986
Rain fall data

1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
GRAPH FOR RAINFALL DATA FROM 1960-2010

1996
1997
1998
1999
2000
2001
2002
2003
2004
2005
2006
2007
2008
2009
2010
TOTAL STATION DATA:
o For the designing of under ground drainage system , we have to study the flow of sewage water
and storm water.
o In this process the gradients is to be known, with the help of total station.

PROCEDURE: (USAGE OF TS):


• We had adopted the back sight orientation method in TS.
• We had fixed the instrument at the desired point so it is convenient to cover the majority of the
points.
• In this process of back sight orientation two unknown points are considered.
• Here, the starting level of the fixed station is taken as 100m. And all the remaining levels are taken
with respective to 100m.
TOTAL STATION ELEVATION DATA:
ID PT Name North Coor(N) East Coor(E) Elevation(Z) Code
1 2 2000.0041 1010.0968 99.798 CP2
2 3 1993.1685 979.0368 99.5662 RL
3 4 2000.7002 980.5896 99.8748 RC
4 5 2009.1581 979.4045 99.5744 RR
5 6 2001.0416 839.967 99.609 RC
6 7 2001.8139 744.5312 99.4391 RC
7 8 2002.4089 702.2091 99.8207 RC
8 9 2001.7054 642.6943 99.5628 RC
9 10 2002.2598 548.9926 99.3855 RC
10 11 2002.2598 548.9926 99.3855 CP3
11 12 2002.8743 437.6134 99.4412 RC
12 13 2002.7442 335.2649 99.433 RC
13 14 2003.2231 297.1548 99.6373 RC
14 15 2004.3064 236.4076 99.3368 RC
15 16 2004.7699 142.126 99.4035 RC
16 17 2005.7189 46.356 99.4 RC
17 18 2002.6875 517.8967 99.4704 CP4
AutoCAD IMAGE OF THE
LEVELS OF SURVEYED AREA IN
MACHILIPTNAM
GROUND WATER TABLE LEVELS:
YEAR GWL IN m
2013 8.7
2014 9.42
2015 9.68
2016 9.85
2017 10.33
2018 12.44
DESIGN OF SEWER
• From the senses we have the population = 81630
• Total area we had considered = 597.3 ha
• Rate of flow should be considered 80% of the total consumption per day
= 135*(80/100) = 108 lpcd (80% in accordance with Central Public Health And
Environmental Engineering Oraganisation)
=108*2.25 = 243 (2.25 is a peak factor considered for population in between
50000 to 750000)
• Quantity = Population * Area * Rate of flow
= (81630 * 597.3 * 240.3) / (24 * 60)
=8.2 MLD = 8.2 * 106 LD
The average discharge of all the years from 1960-2017 is 0.148491 m3/s.
Storm water quantity = 0.148491*1000
= 148.491*86400
= 12.829*106 L/day =12.829 MLD
Total quantity = sewage quantity + storm water quantity
= 8.2*106+12.829*106 = 21.029 MLD
By using manning’s formula :
V = 1/n m2/3 i1/2
= 1/0.012*(d/4)2/3*(1/2000)1/2 = 0.739 d2/3
Q = AV
21.029×106 = (π/4)*d2*0.739d2/3
21.029*106 = 0.581d8/3
d = (21.029*106/0.581)3/8
d = 683.110mm
V = 0.739d2/3
= 0.739*(0.683)2/3
V = 0.573 m/sec
SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT:
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from municipal wastewater,
containing mainly household sewage plus some industrial wastewater. Physical, chemical, and
biological processes are used to remove contaminants and produce treated wastewater (or
treated effluent) that is safe enough for release into the environment. A by-product of sewage
treatment is a semi-solid waste or slurry, called sewage sludge. The sludge has to undergo
further treatment before being suitable for disposal or application to land.
Types of Sewage Treatment Plants
1.Up flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) Technology
2.Activated Sludge Process (ASP) Technology Extended
3.Aeration (EA) Technology Sequencing Batch Reactors
4.Waste Stabilization Ponds
5.Moving Bed Bio Reactor
6.Membrane Bio Reactor
Up Flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket
(UASB) Technology
The principle of UASB reactor is to introduce raw sewage at the bottom of the UASB
reactor. This helps in maintaining a sludge blanket, the incoming sewage passes through
the blanket and fine suspended particles are filtered and soluble components are
absorbed in the Biomass. This Biomass converts the waste into the Biogas and some
new Biomass. The gas leaves the blanket in bubbles and provides necessary mixing .The
settled sludge is digested in the bottom zone.
PROGRESS OF WORK

work
pending
25%
work
completed
75%