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Sets & Logic

Chapter 1 : Logic Part 1.13-1.18


Feridia F1041131007
Wahyu Saputra F1041141008
Muhammad Rafif Wafi F1041161006
Devi Ratna Melinda F1041161007
Sri Mulyani F1041161019
Rasita F1041161030
Annisa Nurfadila F1041161040
LET’S START
1.13 Let P(x,y): x2 + y2 = (x+y)2. Find the
values of the following propositions.

a) P(0,1)
b) P(0,0)
c) P(1,1)
d) For which (x,y), is the value of P(x,y) true?
A predicate can also be made a proposition by
adding a quantifier. There are three quantifiers:

a) ∀ : for all / for any / for each / for every.

b) ∃ : for some / there is / there exists / there is


at least one.

c) ∃! : there is a uniqe / there is exactly one /


there exists only one.
Example: Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 + 2 = 5

a) ∀𝑥 P(x): “for all real numbers x, 𝑥 + 2 = 5”. Which is


false.

b) ∃𝑥 P(x): “there is a real number x such that 𝑥 + 2 =


5”, which is true.

c) ∃! 𝑥 P(x): “there is a uniqe real number x such that


𝑥 + 2 = 5”, which is true.
1.14 Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 < 2𝑥

a) What is the value of ∀𝑥 P(x)? (False)

b) What is the value of ∃𝑥 P(x)? (True)

c) What is the value of ∃! 𝑥 P(x)? (False)


1.15
Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 . Find the values of the
following proposition

∃𝑥 ∃𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
1.15
Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 . Find the values of the
following proposition

∃𝑥 ∀𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
1.15
Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 . Find the values of the
following proposition

∀x ∃𝑦 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦
1.15
Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 . Find the values of the
following proposition

∃𝑦∀x 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦
1.15
Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 . Find the values of the
following proposition

∀𝑦 ∃𝑥 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
Now, Repeat Problem
1.15 , employing
∃! instead of ∃.
1.16
Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 . Find the values of the
following proposition

∃! 𝑥 ∃! 𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
1.16
Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 . Find the values of the
following proposition

∃! 𝑥 ∀𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
1.16
Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 . Find the values of the
following proposition

∀x ∃! 𝑦 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦
1.16
Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 . Find the values of the
following proposition

∃! 𝑦 ∀x 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦
1.16
Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 = (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 . Find the values of the
following proposition

∀𝑦 ∃! 𝑥 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
1.17 Repeat the Problem 1.15 using the following
predicates

a) ∃𝑥 ∃𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
b) ∃𝑥 ∀𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
c) ∀x ∃𝑦 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦 a)𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦 :𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 >0
d) ∃𝑦 ∀𝑥 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦
e) ∀𝑦 ∃𝑥 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)

TRUE OR
FALSE
1.17 Repeat the Problem 1.15 using the following
predicates

a) ∃𝑥 ∃𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
b) ∃𝑥 ∀𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
c) ∀x ∃𝑦 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦 b) 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦 :𝑥 2 + 𝑦 2 ≥1
d) ∃𝑦 ∀𝑥 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦
e) ∀𝑦 ∃𝑥 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)

TRUE OR
FALSE
1.17 Repeat the Problem 1.15 using the following
predicates

a) ∃𝑥 ∃𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
b) ∃𝑥 ∀𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
c) ∀x ∃𝑦 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦 c) 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦 : 𝑥 2 − 𝑦 2 ≥0
d) ∃𝑦 ∀𝑥 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦
e) ∀𝑦 ∃𝑥 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)

TRUE OR
FALSE
1.17 Repeat the Problem 1.15 using the following
predicates

a) ∃𝑥 ∃𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
b) ∃𝑥 ∀𝑦 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)
c) ∀x ∃𝑦 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦 d) 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦 :𝑥 2 −𝑦 >0
d) ∃𝑦 ∀𝑥 𝑃 𝑥, 𝑦
e) ∀𝑦 ∃𝑥 𝑃(𝑥, 𝑦)

TRUE OR
FALSE
We observe, at least intuitively, that the negations of ∃ and ∀ are correlated in the following manner
¬∃ 𝑃 𝑥 ≡ ∀𝑦¬𝑃 𝑥
¬∀𝑥𝑃 𝑥 ≡ ∃𝑦¬𝑃(𝑥)
Example Let 𝑃 𝑥 : 𝑥 + 2 = 5

1. ∃𝑥 𝑃 𝑥 :”there is a real number x such that 𝑥 + 2 = 5”


¬∃𝑥 𝑃 𝑥 : there is no real number x such that x + 2 = 5" which is
equivalent to ∀𝑦 “P(𝑥): “for all real numbers 𝑥, 𝑥 + 2 ≠ 5
2. ∀𝑥𝑃 𝑥 : “for all real numbers 𝑥, 𝑥 + 2 = 5”
¬∀𝑥𝑃 𝑥 : “not all real numbers 𝑥 satisfied 𝑥 + 2 = 5” which is equivalent
to ∃𝑦 ¬𝑃 (𝑥) : “not all real numbers 𝑥 satisfied 𝑥 + 2 = 5” which is
equivalent to ∃𝑦 ¬ 𝑃 𝑥 : “there is a real number 𝑥 such that 𝑥 + 2 ≠ 5”
Write the negations by interchanging
∃ 𝑎𝑛𝑑 ∀

a. There is a real number 𝑥 such that 𝑥 2 < 0


b. Every integer is even.
c. All triangles have angle sum equal 180 degrees.
d. There is an integer 𝑥 such that 𝑥 2 + 2𝑥 + 3 = 0
TERIMA
KASIH