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# LECTURE 4:

BJT AMPLIFIER
FREQUENCY RESPONSE

By:
Syahrul Ashikin Azmi
PPKSE
Lecture’s content
Objectives:
– Discuss the effect of circuit capacitances on
frequency response of an amplifier
– Analyze low and high-frequency response of
amplifiers
Topic to be covered:
– Basic concepts
– The Decibel
– Low-frequency amplifier response
– High-frequency amplifier response
– Total amplifier frequency response
Basic concepts
Frequency response of amplifier  the change in gain or
phase shift over a specified range of input signal
frequencies.
In linear amplifier analysis  assume coupling capacitor
and bypass capacitor short-circuited to signal voltages
and open circuit to dc voltages.
However, capacitor do not change instantaneously from
short cct to open cct as frequency approaches zero.
We also assume transistor is ideal in that o/p signal
respond instantaneously to i/p signal.
But..there are internal capacitances in BJT that affect the
frequency response.
So, our aim is to determine the frequency response of
amplifier cct due to circuit capacitor and transistor
capacitances.
Basic concepts cont..
-Amplifier gain vs frequency-
Cc and CE short cct & Cπ
and Cμ open cct.
Gain almost constant.

Midband

## Gain falls of due to the

effects of C and C

## Gain falls of due to the

effects of CC and CE
Basic concepts cont..
-Low Frequency Range-
At low frequency range, the gain falloff due to
coupling capacitors and bypass capacitors.
As signal frequency  , the XC  - no longer
behave as short circuits.
Basic concepts cont..
-Low Frequency Range-
Coupling capacitors C1 and C3 limit the passage of very low
frequencies. Emitter bypass C2 capacitor will have high
reactance to low frequencies as well, limiting the gain. Also
the capacitance causes a phase shift of the signal.
Basic concepts cont..
-High Frequency Range-
 Internal capacitance of BJTs and FETs comes into play
at high frequencies limiting the gain. Remember
reactance is low at high frequencies.
The gain falls off at high frequency end due to the
internal capacitances of the transistor.
Transistors exhibit charge-storage phenomena that limit
the speed and frequency of their operation.
Small capacitances exist between the
base and collector and between the
base and emitter. These effect the
frequency characteristics of the circuit.

Cμ = Cbc ------ 2 pF ~ 50 pF

## Cπ = Cbe ------ 0.1 pF ~ 5 pF

The Decibel
The decibel is a common unit of measurement of
voltage gain and frequency response. It is a logarithmic
measurement of the ratio of one power to another or one
voltage to another.
The formulas below are used for calculation of decibels
for power gain and voltage gain.
Ap(db) = 10 log Ap
Av(db) = 20 log Av
If Av is > 1, dB gain is +ve. If Av is < 1, dB gain is –ve
and usually called attenuation.
The Decibel
-0 dB reference-
0 dB (actual voltage gain =1)  used as a reference
gain with which to compare other values of gains.
Maximum gain occurs in range of frequencies between
upper and lower critical frequencies; is called midrange
gain and assigned as 0 dB value.
Any value of gain below midrange is expressed as a –ve
dB value.
If midrange Av is 100, gain at a certain frequency below
midrange is 50, this reduced Av is expressed as
20log(50/100)= -6 dB. This indicates 6 dB below 0 dB
reference.
Halving o/p voltage for a steady i/p voltage is always 6
dB reduction in gain.
Doubling o/p voltage is always 6 dB increase in gain.
The Decibel
-0 dB reference-
Figure shows a normalized gain vs frequency curve for
several dB points. Normalized means midrange voltage
gain is assigned a value of 1 or 0 dB.
The Decibel
-Critical frequency & power measurement in
dBm-
The critical frequency, also known as the cutoff
frequency or corner frequency, is the frequency at
which the output power drops by 3 dB, which represents
one-half of its midrange value.
Ap(dB) = 10 log(0.5) = -3dB
An output voltage drop of 3 dB represents about a 70.7%
drop from the midrange value.
Av(dB) = 20 log(0.707) = -3dB
Power is often measured in units of dBm. This is
decibels with reference to 1 mW of power. This means
that 0 dBm = 1 mW.
Each 3dBm increase corresponds to doubling of power,
3 dBm decrease corresponds to a halving of the power.
Low frequency amplifier response
Assume CC and CE are short-cct, midrange Av is:
 R1 R2 r 
Vo
Av    g m  ro RC RL 
Vs  R1 R2 r  RS 
 
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
At the low frequency ac equivalent circuit of a capacitor
coupled amplifier, we can see there are three RC circuits
that will limit low frequency response. The input at the
base, the output at the collector, and the emitter.

Input RC Circuit
Output RC Circuit

Bypass RC Circuit
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Input RC Circuit-
 
 V
Rin
As frequency decreases, Vbase
 R 2
 X 2 in
XC1 increases  less base  in 
C1

## voltage due to more voltage

drop across C1. Thus,
voltage gain is reduced.
A critical point occurs when
o/p voltage is 70.7% of its
midrange value. This
condition occur when
XC1=Rin.
   Rin 
Vbase   Rin Vin   Vin  0.707Vin
 R2  R2   2R 
 in in   in   Vbase 
20 log    20 log( 0.707 )  3dB
 Vin 
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Input RC Circuit-
The frequency at which the gain is down by 3 dB is
called the lower critical frequency (fcl). This frequency
can be determined by the formula below.
1
X C1   Rin Rin @ Ri  R1 R2 r
2f cl ( input )C1
Resistance of input
1 1
f cl ( input ) 
source taken into
@
2RinC1 2( RS  Rin )C1
account

R1S
fcl also known as lower cutoff frequency, lower corner
frequency or lower break frequency.
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Input RC Circuit-
The decrease in voltage gain with frequency is
called the roll-off.
A ten times change in frequency is called a
For each ten times reduction in frequency
below fc, there is a 20 dB reduction in
voltage gain.
The attenuation measured in dB at each decade
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Input RC Circuit-
This typical plot of dB Av
vs frequency is called
Bode plot.
From Bode plot, it is flat
(0dB) down to critical Midrange
frequency, at which point
gain drop at -20dB/
midrange frequencies.
Sometimes roll-off is Low frequency
expressed in dB/octave,
which is a doubling or
halving of the frequency.
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Input RC Circuit-
Input RC circuit also causes an increasing in phase shift
through amplifier.
At midrange, phase shift is approximately zero since
XC1=0Ω.
At lower frequencies, higher values of XC1 cause a
phase shift and o/p voltage of RC circuit leads i/p
voltage.
1  X C 1 
Phase shift in input RC circuit is:   tan  
At critical frequency, XC1=Rin, so:  Rin 
1  Rin 
  tan    tan 1 ( 1 )  450
 Rin 
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Input RC Circuit-

## The input RC circuit causes

As phase shift approach
90ο, frequency approaches
voltage below midrange by
zero.
an amount equal to circuit
phase angle, θ.
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Output RC Circuit-

## The output RC circuit affects the response similarly to

the input RC circuit. The formula below is used to
determine the cutoff frequency of the output circuit.

1
f cl ( output ) 
2( RC ro  RL )C3

R2S
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Output RC Circuit-

## Phase angle in o/p RC circuit is:

 X C3 
  tan 
1

 RC  RL 
θ≈0o for midrange frequencies and approaches 90o as
frequency approaches zero (XC3 ∞).
At critical frequency, phase shift =45o.
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Bypass RC Circuit-
At low frequencies, XC2 is in parallel with RE creates an
impedance that reduces the voltage gain.
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Bypass RC Circuit-
Replacing C1
Rth
and C2 by
Input source
short circuits
is short-circuit
Rs

RC||RL

R1||R2 R3 S  RE ROUTCC
RE R3S
r  Rth
R3 S  RE
1
Rth  RS R1 R2 RoutCC

Ve Ve
ROUTCC  
I e ( 1   )I b
( r  Rth )I b r  Rth
 
( 1   )I b 1
Low frequency amplifier response cont..
-Bypass RC Circuit-

## The lower cutoff frequency for bypass RC circuit is:

1 1
f cl ( bypass )  
2R3 S C 2  r  Rth 
2 RE C 2
 1 
Example 1

## For common-emitter circuit,

given β=100, VBE=0.7V,
VA=∞.
a) Calculate the lower corner
frequency
b) Determine the midband
voltage gain
c) Sketch Bode plot of voltage
gain magnitude.
Total low-frequency response of amplifier
Each RC circuit has a critical frequency determined by R
and C values.
If one of RC circuits has a critical frequency higher than
the other two  it is called dominant RC circuit.
The dominant circuit determines the frequency at which
the overall gain begins to drop at -20dB/decade.
The other circuits each cause an additional -
20dB/decade roll-off below their respective critical
frequencies.
Total low-frequency response of amplifier
Refer to figure below, input RC circuit is dominant and
bypass RC circuit has the lowest fc.
The overall response is shown in blue line.
Example 2
Determine the total low- VCC = 10V
frequency response of the
amplifier.

Given :
R1 RC
62 k C2
 = 100, VA = 70 V
2.2 k vO
RS C1 0.1 F
RL
600 0.1 F
10 k
vS
R2
RE C3
22 k 10 F
1.0 k
Therefore,
r = 1.59 k, ro = 42.74 k,
gm = 63 mA/V
Example 2
Low frequency due to C1 and C2 C3
Low frequency due to C1

## R1S  RS  RB r   600  16.24k 1.59k   2.05 k

RTH  R1 R2  16.24 k
1 1
fC ( input )    776.37 Hz  776.4 Hz
1
2R1 S C1 22.05 k0.1F 
Low frequency due to C2

## R2 S  RL  RC ro   10 k  2.2k 43.74k   12.092k

1 1
fCl ( output )    131.62 Hz  132Hz
2R2 S C2 212.092k0.1F 
Example 2
Low frequency due to C3
Low frequency due to C3

## r  Rth 1.59 k  579

R3 S  RE  1k  21.02 
1 101
Rth  RS RTH  0.579k
1 1
fCl ( bypass )    757 Hz
2R3 S C3 221.0210F 

## Dominant lower cutoff frequency is:

fcl(input) = 776.4Hz
High frequency BJT amplifier response

## High-frequency response is limited by

internal capacitances of the transistors.
These act like shunts around the
transistor.
Miller’s theorem allows us to view the
internal capacitances as external
capacitors for better understanding of the
effect they have on the frequency
response.
Miller’s Theorem

## This theorem simplifies the analysis of feedback

amplifiers.
The theorem states that if an impedance is connected
between the input side and the output side of a voltage
amplifier, this impedance can be replaced by two
equivalent impedances, i.e. one connected across the
input and the other connected across the output
terminals.
Miller theorem

## General case of Miller input and output capacitances.

Miller equivalent circuit
V2  V1
I2 
V1  V2 Z Z
I1 
Z
I1 I2 V2   A V1
V2   A V1 -A
 1
V2 1  
V1 (1  A) V1 V1 V2  A 
I1   I2 
Z  Z  Z
 
1  A 
V2
I2 
 
Input  Z 
 
1  1 
 A 
 

Output
Miller equivalent circuit
V2
I2 
 
 Z 
V1  
I1  1  1 
 Z  -A
 A 
1  A   
V ZM1 ZM2 V
 Z  1 2  
V1  Z 
   V2

I1 1  A   1
I2 1  
 A
 Z 
ZM1     
1  A   Z 
ZM 2   
Input 1  1 
 A 
 

Output
Miller Capacitance Effect
C
Z
ZM 2 
I1 I2 1
1
Z -A A
ZM1 
1 A XC
V1 V2 X CM 2 
1
XC 1
X CM 1  A
1 A
1 1

1

1  CM 2  C (1 
1
)
 CM 1  C (1  A ) A

1
CM 1  C (1  A) -A CM 2  C (1  )
A

## Input V1 CM1 CM2 V2

Output
High-frequency hybrid- model

C
B C
+
r V C gmV ro
-

C = Cbe E C = Cbc
High-frequency hybrid- model
with Miller effect
B C

r C CMi ro
gmV CMo

E
 1  1
CMi  C 1  A  Cbc 1  A CMo  C 1    Cbc 1  
 A  A

## Cin  C  CMi Cout  CMo

A : midband gain
Example 3
Given :
VCC = 10V
 = 125, Cbe = 20 pF, Cbc = 2.4 pF,
VA = 70V, VBE(on) = 0.7V
RC
Determine : R1
22 k 2.2 k C2
i-Upper cutoff frequencies vO
RS C1
10 F
ii- Dominant upper cutoff
RL
frequency 600  10 F
2.2 k
vS R2
RE C3
4.7 k
10 F
470 
Example 3
High-frequency hybrid- model
with Miller effect for CE amplifier
Ri RS Ro
vo

## vs R1||R2 C CMi r ro RC||RL

CMo
gmV

 R1 R2 r 
A  gm   
 r R R  56.36  midband gain
 RS  R1 R2 r  o C L
 

## CMi  Cbc 1  A  2.4 p 57.36  137.66 pF  Miller’s equivalent

capacitor at the input

 1
CMo  Cbc 1    2.4 p 1.018  2.44 pF  Miller’s equivalent

Example 3

## Ri  RS R1 R2 r 600 22k 4.7k 1.55k  389.47  Thevenin’s equivalent

resistance at the input

## Ro  RC RL ro  2.2k 2.2k 47.62k  1.08k  Thevenin’s equivalent

resistance at the output

## Cout  CMo  2.44 pF  total output capacitance

1 1
f cu ( input )    2.59MHz  upper cutoff frequency
2RiCin 2389.47157.66 p  introduced by input
capacitance

1 1
fcu ( output )    60.39MHz introduced
upper cutoff frequency

## 2RoCout 21.08k 2.44 p  capacitance

by output
Total high-frequency response of BJT amplifier
The lowest of the two values of upper cutoff frequencies
is the dominant frequency.
Therefore, the upper cutoff frequency of the amplifier in
previous example is:
f H  2.59 MHz
Refer to Bode plot in next slide, at fcu(input) voltage gain
begins to roll-off at -20dB/decade. At fcu(output), gain
dropping to -40dB/decade because each RC circuit
Total high-frequency response of BJT amplifier

## The Bode plot of the high frequency response shown

shows the combined effects of each internal
capacitance.
Total Amplifier Frequency Response

## -3 break points at lower critical -2 break points at upper frequencies

frequencies (fc1,fc2 and fc3) fc4 and fc5 produced by 2 high-
produced by 3 low-frequency frequency RC circuits formed by
RC circuits formed by Cc and CE transistor’s internal capacitance
Total Amplifier Frequency Response
-Bandwidth
The range of frequencies
lying between fcl(dom) and
fcu(dom)  bandwidth of
amplifier.
Only dominant cutoff
frequency appear in
response curve because
they determine the
bandwidth.
The amplifier’s bandwidth
expressed in hertz as:

BW  f cu ( dom )  f cl ( dom )
Example 4
Total Frequency Response of CE Amplifier
Given : VCC = 5V

##  = 120, Cbe = 2.2 pF, Cbc = 1

pF, VA = 100V, VBE(on) = 0.7V
R1 RC
Determine : 33 k C2
4 k
i-lower and upper cutoff RS C1 2 F vO
frequencies RL
2 k 1 F
ii- midband gain 5 k
vS R2
RE C3
22 k 10 F
4 k
Example 4
Q-point values

## VBB  VBE (on)

IB   2.615A
RB    1RE

R2
VBB   VCC  2V
R1  R2
R1  R2
RB   13.2 k
R1  R2

I CQ  I B  0.314 mA
Example 4
Transistor parameters value

VT
r   9.94 k
I CQ

VA
ro   318.47 k
I CQ

I CQ
gm   12.08 mS
VT
Example 4
Midband gain

Amid   g m
R
B r 
 
R r 
r RC RL
 RB
o
S 

## RS  r RB   2k  9.94k 13.2k  7.67k

r
o 
RC RL  318.47k 2.22k  2.18k

Amid  12.08m
5.67k 
2.18k   19.47
7.67k 
Example 4
Lower cutoff frequency
1
Due to C1 1   130.38 rad / s R1S  RS  RB r  7.67 k
R1S C1
1 R2S  RL  RC ro  8.95 k
Due to C2 2   55.87 rad / s
R2 S C2
1 R3S  RE
r  R
S RB 
 94.26 
Due to C3 3   1060.9 rad / s  1
R3S C3

3
Dominant Lower cutoff frequency
fL   169 Hz
2
(the highest value)
Example 4
Upper cutoff frequency
Miller Capacitance

## CMi  Cbc 1  A  1 p 20.47  20.47 pF

 1
CMo  Cbc 1    1 p 1.051  1.05 pF
 A
Cin  Cbe  CMi  22.67 pF Cout  CMo  1.05 pF
Input & output resistances

Ri  RS R1 R2 r  1.48 k
Ro  RC RL ro  2.18 k
Example 4
upper cutoff frequency

1 1
Input side f Hi    4.74 MHz
2Ri Cin 2 1.48 k 22.67 p 

1 1
Output side f Ho    69.53MHz
2RoCout 2 2.18k 1.05 p 

## Upper cutoff frequency

(the smallest value) f H  4.74MHz
Summary
The coupling and bypass capacitor of amplifier affect the
low-frequency response.
The internal capacitances affect high-frequency
response.
Each RC circuit causes voltage gain to drop at a rate of