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Secrets of Number theoretic tools in Network

Algorithms of Public-key Cryptosystems

1N. Hari Nisha , 2Keshiya Anthony, 3A. Suruthi Kaviya , 4S. Anitha , 5S. Aishwarya , 6M.
Under the guidance of Project Supervisor
7Mr. J . Sasikumar,
Assistant Professor.

1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Department of Mathematics

SRM Institute of Science and Technology, Kattankulathur-603 203, Tamil Nadu, India
 History of number theory
 Important concepts of number theory
 Arithmetic functions
 Congruences
 Simple properties of congruences
 Cryptography
 History of cryptography
 Modern cryptography
 Private key cryptography
 Public key cryptography
 Simple definitions
 Network security
 Applications of number theory in network security
 RSA algorithm
 References
 Proposed to explore various number theory concepts hiding
behind RSA algorithm and other network security algorithms
of digital signature and cryptosystems.
 The strength of RSA algorithm and the weakness of RSA with
multiple encryption and decryption exponents will be
discussed by finding bounds on the decryption exponents.
 Efficient network security algorithms are compared with
enhanced RSA algorithm in terms of security from attacks and
encryption/decryption time by means of pie charts and bar
 Current work- Understanding the function of the RSA
algorithm and other types of algorithms.
History Of Number Theory

 Number theory or in older usage arithmetic is a branch of pure

 "The Queen of Mathematics“.
 The positive integers are undoubtedly man’s first mathematical
 By 5700 BC the ancient Sumerians kept a calendar , so they must
have developed some form of arithmetic.
 Around 600 BC Pythagoras and his disciples made studies of the
integers and they were the first to classify integers in various ways
(i.e., even , odd , prime and composite numbers)
Basics: Important concepts in
Number Theory
A positive integer is said to be prime if its factors are exclusively
1 and itself.
Example: Primes are 2,3,5,7,…

A positive integer a is said to divide an integer b if there exists an
integer c such that b=ac and written as b=a.c and written as a│b
Example: 2 │10 as 10=2.5 but 3 does not divide 10 as there does
not exist any integer c such that 10=3.c
Basics: Important concepts in
Number Theory
Let a and b be integers, not both zero .Then the GCD
is the largest positive integer which is factor of both
(a,b).It is denoted by d=(a,b)
Example: 6=(24,30)


Two numbers a and b are said to be relatively prime
or co-prime if their greatest common divisor is 1 i.e.
Example:10 and 11 are co-prime
Number theory is often concerned with sequences of real or
complex numbers .In number theory such sequences are called
arithmetical functions.


The mobius function is defined as follows
if n>1,write n=p1 a1……………. Pka k then,

µ(n)=(-1)k if a1 =a2=………ak=1
µ(n)=0 otherwise

Note that µ(n)=0 if and only if n has a square factor>1

Here is a short table of values of Mobius function µ(n):

n: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

µ(n) 1 -1 -1 0 -1 1 -1 0 0


if n≥1 the euler totient ϕ(n) is defined to be the number of
positive numbers not exceeding n which are relatively prime to n

ϕ(n)=  '1
k 1

Where the ʼ indicates that the sum is extended over those k

relatively prime to n.
Here is a short table of values of ϕ(n):
n: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

ϕ(n) 1 1 2 2 4 2 6 4 6

Relation connecting ϕ and μ

 ( n)    ( d )
d |n d
An multiplicative function f is called multiplicative if f is not
identically zero and if
f(mn)=f(m)f(n) where (m,n)=1
A multiplicative function f is called completely multiplicative if we
also have
f(mn)=f(m)f(n) for all m,n
Example: The identity function I(n)=[1/n] is completely
 Congruence modulo m
 Let m be a positive integer. Then an integer a is congruent
to an integer b modulo m if m|(a-b).
 In symbols if we write a≡b (mod m); m is the modulus of
the congruence relation.
Examples: 5|(23-3) 23 ≡3(mod 5)
6|(48-12) 48 ≡12(mod 6)
 Real life applications
Examples: Modulo 12 to tell the time
Modulo 7 to tell the day of the week
Simple Properties

 Let a,b,c,n be integers with n≠0

(1) a≡0 (mod n) iff n|a [Identity]
(2) a≡a (mod n) [Reflexive]
(3) a≡b (mod n) iff b≡a (mod n) [Symmetric]
(4) a≡b and b≡c (mod n) → a≡c (mod n) [Transitive]
What is cryptography?

“The art of hiding information”

“The practice and study of techniques for secure

communication in the presence of third parties”

History Of Cryptography
 Cryptography is the use of codes and ciphers to protect secrets
which began thousands of years ago.
 Until recent decades, it has been the story of what might be
called classic cryptography — that is, of methods
of encryption that use pen and paper, or perhaps simple
mechanical aids.
 The development of cryptography has been paralleled by the
development of cryptanalysis — the "breaking" of codes
and ciphers.
Modern cryptography
A branch of mathematics and computer science

Two Main branches

1.Private key cryptography
2.Public key cryptography
Private key cryptography

 The same key is used for both encryption

and decryption
 Examples:
 Caesar Cipher
 Blowfish
Public key cryptography
 Two keys are needed:
 one for encryption
 other for decryption

Key’s properties:
 Neither keys can perform both operations
 The two keys are mathematically paired
 Public key for encryption and private key for
Examples: RSA,YAK, Various elliptic curve
Simple definitions
 Plain text is the original message that is to be transmitted in
secret form.
 Cipher text is its secret version.
 The key is used to formulate the cipher, so the job of the
cryptanalyst is to discover the key and then break code.
 The process of converting a plain text to cipher text is
encrypting (enciphering) and the converting device the
 The reverse process by the intended recipient who knows the
key is decrypting (deciphering) and it is accomplished by a
Simple definitions
 The encryptor and decryptor may be algorithms executed by
people or computers.
 Thus the method used by an unintended receiver to recover the
original message is cryptanalysis.
 A cryptosystem is a system for encrypting a plain text to a
cipher using a key
Network Security
 Responsible for securing all information passed
through networked computers.
 With the advent of the World Wide Web and the emergence of
e-commerce applications and social networks, organizations
across the world generate a large amount of data daily.
 Information security is the most extreme basic issue in
guaranteeing safe transmission of data through the web.
 Network security issues are now becoming important as
society is moving towards digital information age.
 As more and more users connect to the internet it attracts a lot
of cyber-attacks.
 Network Security can be enhanced through Cryptography.
Applications of Number Theory
in Network Security
 Number theory plays an important role in
encryption algorithm.
 Many tools in number theory such as
1. Primes
2. Divisors
3. Greatest Common Divisor
4. Co-primes
5. Congruence
6. Euler’s ϕ function
are used in cryptography for security.
RSA Algorithm
 RSA is a commonly used asymmetric algorithm.
 It was publicly described in 1977 by Ron Rivest, Adi
Shamir, and Leonard Adelman at MIT.
 The letters RSA are the initials of their surnames.
 It is based on some interesting relationships with prime
 Its security is derived from the fact that it is difficult to
factor large integers into its prime factors.

MIT scientists Adi Shamir, Ronald Rivest, and Leonard

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