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Anne Boykin and Savina

• Anne Boykin
• Born 1944, Kaukauna, Wisconsin

• Started her nursing career 1966 after graduating from Alverno College
in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

• Master’s Degree - Emery University Atlanta, Georgia

• Doctorate – Vanderbilt University Nashville, Tennessee

Savina Schoenhofer
• Born 1940 on Kansas

• Finished her nursing studies at Wichita State


• Completed her PhD in Educational Foundation and

Administration at Kansas State University
Nursing as Caring
Major Concepts and Definitions
• Focus and Intention of Nursing
-The Focus of nursing from the perspective of the Theory of Nursing as
Caring is that the discipline of knowledge and professional practice is
nurturing persons living and growing in caring

-The general Intention of nursing is to know persons as caring and

support and to sustain them as they live caring
• Perspective of persons as caring
-The Fundamental Assumption is that all persons are caring.
Caring is lived by each person moment to moment and is an essential
characteristic of being human.

-Caring is a process, and throughout life, each person grows in the

capacity to express caring.

-Person therefore is recognized as constantly unfolding in caring.

• Nursing situation
-Caring is service that nursing offers and lives in the context of the
nursing situation.

-Nursing Situation is the locus of all that known and done in nursing
and is conceptualized as “the shared, lived and experience in which
caring between nurse and nursed enhances personhood”.

• Personhood

-Personhood is a process of living that is grounded in caring.

• Direct Invitation
-Within the Nursing Situation, the Direct Invitation opens the relationship
to true caring between the nurse and the nursed.

• Call for Nursing

-Calls for nursing are calls for nurturance perceived in the mind of the
nurse and authentic presence open the nurse to hearing calls of nursing.

• Caring Between

-When the nurse enters the world of the other person with the intention
of knowing the other as caring person, the encountering of the nurse
and the one nursed gives rise to the phenomenon of caring between,
within which personhood is nurtured.
• Nursing Response
-In responding to the nursing call, the nurse enters the nursing situation
with the intention of knowing the other person as caring. This knowing of
person clarifies the call for nursing and shapes the nursing response,
transforming the knowledge brought by the situation from general, to
particular and unique.

• Story

- A method for knowing nursing and a medium for all forms of nursing
Major Assumptions
• Person:
I. Persons are caring by virtue of their humanness

II. Persons are whole and complete in the moment

III. Persons live caring, moment to moment

• Health:
IV. Personhood is living life grounded in caring
• Environment:
V. Personhood is enhanced through participating in nurturing relationships with
Caring others

• Nursing
VI. Nursing is both a discipline and profession
• Critique
• Clarity
-The theory is presented in logical form grounded in nursing as a discipline
of knowledge.

• Accessibility
-The theory is accessible to all forms of nursing practices.

• Simplicity
-The premises of the theory is understandable even without complex
knowledge of it’s assumptions
• Generality
-The focus of the theory can be used in all forms of nursing.

• Importance

-Nursing as Caring’s assumptions is of great importance even in today’s modern

practice of nursing