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Business Research Methods

Chapter 2 Objectives

A. Definition of Scientific Investigation


B. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research
C. The reason of organizational behavior and management areas cannot be
completely scientific.
D. Building blocks of science.
E. Seven steps of the hypothetico-deductive method
F. The processes of induction and deduction.
G. Appreciate the advantages of knowledge about scientific investigation
A. Definition of Scientific Investigation

Oxford Dictionary
Scientific (adj): (1) based on or characterized by the method and principles of
science; (2) informal systematic; methodical.
Investigation (noun): (1) The action of investigating something or someone;
formal or systematic examination or research

Scientific Investigation is a quest to find the answer to a question using the


scientific method. in turn, the scientific method is systematic process that
involves using measurable observations to formulate, test or modify a
hypothesis. (www.study.com)
B. The Hallmarks of Scientific Research

The hallmarks or main distinguishing characteristics of


scientific research may be listed as follows:

1. Purposiveness (Tujuan jelas)


2. Rigor (Ketepatan)
3. Testability (Dapat diuji)
4. Replicability (Dapat ditiru)
5. Precision and Confidence (Ketelitian dan Keyakinan)
6. Objectivity (Objektivitas)
7. Generalizability (Dapat Digeneralisasi)
8. Parsimony (Hemat)
C. The reason of organizational behavior
and management areas cannot be
completely scientific
There are some obstacles to conducting scientific research in the
management area, such as difficulties when measurement and collection of
data in the subjective areas of feelings, emotions, attitudes, or perceptions.
D. Building blocks of science.
Observation

Refinement of theory (pure Identification of problem


research) or Implementation area
(applied research)

Theoretical
framework or
network of
Interpretation of association
data

Analysis data Hypothesis

Construct concepts
Data operational
Collection definitions

Research
design
E. The hypothetico-deductive method
The seven-step process in the Hypothetico-Deductive
Method :

1. Identify a broad problem area (Pengidentifikasian masalah)


2. Define the problem statement (Penemuan masalah)
3. Develop hypotheses (Pembangunan hipotesis)
4. Determine measures (Penentuan pengukuran)
5. Data collection (Pengumpulan data)
6. Data analysis (Analisa data)
7. Interpretation of data (Penginterpretasian data)
F. The processes of induction and
deduction
In logic, we often refer to the two broad methods of reasoning as the
deductive and inductive approaches

 Deductive
Deductive reasoning works from the more general to the more specific.
Sometimes this is informally called a "top-down" approach
Theory -> Hypothesis -> Observation -> Confirmation

 Inductive
Inductive reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to
broader generalizations and theories. Informally, we sometimes call this a
"bottom up" approach.
Observation -> Pattern ->Tentative hypothesis -> Theory
Source

 Business Research Methods Fifth Edition, Uma Sekaran 7 Roger Bougie


 Oxford English Dictionary
 http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/kb/dedind.php
 http://www.study.com
End of presentation

 Thank you…