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WHAT ARE ELECTRICAL

TRANSFORMER?
ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMERS
• MACHINES THAT TRANSFER ELECTRICITY FROM ONE CIRCUIT TO
ANOTHER WITH CHANGING VOLTAGE LEVEL BUT NO FREQUENCY
CHANGE. TODAY, THEY ARE DESIGNED TO USE AC SUPPLY, WHICH
MEANS THAT FLUCTUATION IN SUPPLY VOLTAGE IS IMPACTED BY
THE FLUCTUATION IN THE CURRENT. SO, AN INCREASE IN
CURRENT WILL BRING ABOUT AN INCREASE IN THE VOLTAGE AND
VICE VERSA.
THE CONSTRUCTION OF AN
ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER
• THE THREE IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF AN ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER ARE
A MAGNETIC CORE, PRIMARY WINDING, AND SECONDARY WINDING. THE
PRIMARY WINDING IS THE PART THAT IS CONNECTED TO AN ELECTRICAL
SOURCE, FROM WHERE MAGNETIC FLUX IS INITIALLY PRODUCED. THESE COILS
ARE INSULATED FROM EACH OTHER AND THE MAIN FLUX IS INDUCED IN THE
PRIMARY WINDING FROM WHERE IT IS PASSED TO THE MAGNETIC CORE AND
LINKED TO THE TRANSFORMER’S SECONDARY WINDING THROUGH A LOW
RELUCTANCE PATH.
BASIC WORKING OF TRANSFORMERS
• THE CORE RELAYS THE FLUX TO THE SECONDARY WINDING TO
CREATE A MAGNETIC CIRCUIT THAT CLOSES THE FLUX, AND A
LOW RELUCTANCE PATH IS PLACED WITHIN THE CORE TO
MAXIMIZE FLUX LINKAGE. THE SECONDARY WINDING
HELPS COMPLETE THE MOVEMENT OF THE FLUX THAT BEGINS AT
THE PRIMARY SIDE, AND USING THE CORE REACHES THE
SECONDARY WINDING.
• THE SECONDARY WINDING IS ABLE TO PICK MOMENTUM
BECAUSE BOTH WINDINGS ARE WOUND ON THE SAME CORE AND
HENCE THEIR MAGNETIC FIELDS HELP TO CREATE MOTION. IN ALL
THE TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS, THE MAGNETIC CORE IS
ASSEMBLED BY STACKING LAMINATED STEEL SHEETS LEAVING
THE MINIMUM REQUIRED AIR-GAP BETWEEN THEM TO ENSURE
THE CONTINUITY OF THE MAGNETIC PATH.
THE BASIC TRANSFORMER
CONSISTS OF TWO TYPES OF COILS,
NAMELY:
1.PRIMARY COIL
2.SECONDARY COIL
PRIMARY COIL

•THE COIL TO WHICH THE SUPPLY IS GIVEN


IS CALLED AS THE PRIMARY COIL.
SECONDARY COIL

• THE COIL FROM WHICH THE SUPPLY IS TAKEN IS


CALLED AS THE SECONDARY COIL.
• BASED ON THE REQUIRED OUTPUT VOLTAGE THE
NUMBER IF TURNS IN THE PRIMARY COIL AND THE
SECONDARY COIL ARE VARIED.
THE PROCESSES OCCURRING INSIDE THE
TRANSFORMER CAN BE GROUPED INTO TWO:

• MAGNETIC FLUX IS PRODUCED IN A COIL WHEN EVER


THERE IS A CHANGE IN CURRENT FLOWING THROUGH
THE COIL.
• SIMILARLY CHANGE IN MAGNETIC FLUX LINKED WITH
THE COIL INDUCES EMF IN THE COIL.
•THE FIRST PROCESS OCCURS IN THE WINDINGS
OF THE TRANSFORMER. WHEN THE AC SUPPLY IS
GIVEN TO THE PRIMARY WINDING ALTERNATING
FLUX IS PRODUCED IN THE COIL
• THE SECOND PROCESS OCCURS IN THE SECONDARY
WINDING OF THE TRANSFORMER. THE FLUX
ALTERNATING FLUX PRODUCED IN THE TRANSFORMER
LINKS THE COILS IN THE SECONDARY WINDING AND
HENCE EMF IS INDUCED IN THE SECONDARY WINDING.
• WHENEVER AN AC SUPPLY IS GIVEN TO THE PRIMARY COIL, FLUX
IS PRODUCED IN THE COIL. THESE FLUX LINKS WITH THE
SECONDARY WINDING THEREBY INDUCING EMF IN THE
SECONDARY COIL. THE FLOW OF FLUX THROUGH THE MAGNETIC
CORE IS SHOWN BY DOTED LINES. THIS IS THE VERY BASIC
WORKING OF THE TRANSFORMER.
• THEVOLTAGE PRODUCED IN THE SECONDARY COIL
DEPENDS MAINLY ON THE TURNS RATIO OF THE
TRANSFORMER.
• THERE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF
TURNS AND THE VOLTAGE IS GIVEN BY THE FOLLOWING
EQUATIONS.
N1/N2 = V1/V2 = I2/I1
• WHERE,
• N1= NUMBER OF TURNS IN THE PRIMARY COIL OF THE TRANSFORMER.
• N2= NUMBER OF TURNS IN THE SECONDARY COIL OF THE TRANSFORMER.
• V1= VOLTAGE IN THE PRIMARY COIL OF THE TRANSFORMER.
• V2= VOLTAGE IN THE SECONDARY COIL OF THE TRANSFORMER.
• I1= CURRENT THROUGH THE PRIMARY COIL OF THE TRANSFORMER.
• I2= CURRENT THROUGH THE SECONDARY COIL OF THE TRANSFORMER.
BASIC PARTS

• ANY TRANSFORMER CONSISTS OF THE FOLLOWING


THREE BASIC PARTS IN IT.
• PRIMARY COIL
• SECONDARY COIL
• MAGNETIC CORE
1. PRIMARY COIL.

•THE PRIMARY COIL IS THE COIL TO WHICH THE


SOURCE IS CONNECTED. IT MAY BE THE HIGH
VOLTAGE SIDE OR LOW VOLTAGE SIDE OF THE
TRANSFORMER. AN ALTERNATING FLUX IS
PRODUCED IN THE PRIMARY COIL.
2. SECONDARY COIL

•THE OUTPUT IS TAKEN FROM THE SECONDARY


COIL. THE ALTERNATING FLUX PRODUCED IN THE
PRIMARY COIL PASSES THROUGH THE CORE
AND LINKS WITH THERE COIL AND HENCE EMF IS
INDUCED IN THIS COIL.
3. MAGNETIC CORE

•THE FLUX PRODUCED IN THE PRIMARY PASSES


THROUGH THIS MAGNETIC CORE. IT IS MADE UP
OF LAMINATED SOFT IRON CORE. IT PROVIDES
SUPPORT TO THE COIL AND ALSO PROVIDES A
LOW RELUCTANCE PATH FOR THE FLUX.
COMPONENTS OF A TRANSFORMER
1. CORE
• THE CORE IS NOT DESIGNED TO HAVE
ANY CURRENTS FLOW THROUGH IT. IT
IS HOWEVER A CONDUCTING LOOP
THAT EXPERIENCES A CHANGING
MAGNETIC FIELD, IT WILL THEREFORE
HAVE SMALL CURRENTS INDUCED IN IT
- THESE ARE CALLED 'EDDY CURRENTS'.
2. WINDINGS
• TRANSFORMERS ARE CAPABLE OF
EITHER INCREASING OR DECREASING
THE VOLTAGE AND CURRENT LEVELS
OF THEIR SUPPLY, WITHOUT
MODIFYING ITS FREQUENCY, OR THE
AMOUNT OF ELECTRICAL POWER
BEING TRANSFERRED FROM ONE
WINDING TO ANOTHER VIA THE
MAGNETIC CIRCUIT.
3. TRANSFORMER OIL
• TRANSFORMER
OIL OR INSULATING OIL IS
AN OIL THAT IS STABLE AT
HIGH TEMPERATURES AND
HAS EXCELLENT ELECTRICAL
INSULATING PROPERTIES.
4. TAP CHANGER
•A TAP CHANGER IS A
MECHANISM IN TRANSFORMERS
WHICH ALLOWS FOR VARIABLE
TURN RATIOS TO BE SELECTED IN
DISCRETE STEPS.
5. CONSERVATOR
•A CONSERVATOR TANK OF
TRANSFORMER PROVIDES
ADEQUATE SPACE TO THIS
EXPANDED TRANSFORMER OIL. IT
ALSO ACTS AS A RESERVOIR FOR
TRANSFORMER INSULATING OIL.
6. BREATHER
• “BREATHER” HELPS THE
TRANSFORMER TO BREATH I.E IT
HELP TO PROVIDE THE FLOW OF AIR
FROM INSIDE THE TRANSFORMER TO
ATMOSPHERE AS WELL AS AIR
COMES INSIDE IT FROM
ATMOSPHERE .
7. COOLING TUBES
• THE TRANSFORMER IS A DEVICE USED
TO CONVERT THE ENERGY AT ONE
VOLTAGE LEVEL TO THE ENERGY AT
ANOTHER VOLTAGE LEVEL. DURING
THIS CONVERSION PROCESS, LOSSES
OCCUR IN THE WINDINGS AND THE
CORE OF THE TRANSFORMER.
8. BUCHHOLZ RELAY
• BUCHHOLZ RELAY IS USED
FOR THE PROTECTION OF
TRANSFORMERS FROM THE
FAULTS OCCURRING INSIDE
THE TRANSFORMER.
9. EXPLOSION VENT
• AN EXPLOSION VENT OR RUPTURE PANEL
IS A SAFETY DEVICE TO PROTECT
EQUIPMENT OR BUILDINGS AGAINST
EXCESSIVE INTERNAL, EXPLOSION-
INCURRED PRESSURES, BY MEANS OF
PRESSURE RELIEF. AN EXPLOSION VENT
WILL RELIEVE PRESSURE FROM THE
INSTANT ITS OPENING (OR ACTIVATION)
PRESSURE PSTAT HAS BEEN EXCEEDED.
CLASSIFICATION OF
TRANSFORMERS
TYPES OF TRANSFORMERS
Parameter Types
Based on application Step up transformer
Step down transformer
Based on Construction Core type transformers
Shell type transformers
Based on the number of phases. Single phase
Three phase
Based on the method of cooling Self-air–cooled (Dry type)
Air-blast–cooled (Dry type)
Oil-immersed, combination self-cooled and air-
blast
Oil-immersed, water-cooled
Oil-immersed, forced-oil–cooled
Oil-immersed, combination self-cooled and
water-cooled
ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER –
EFFICIENCY AND LOSSES
• AN ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER DOES NOT EMPLOY ANY MOVING
PARTS TO TRANSFER ENERGY WHICH MEANS THAT THERE IS NO
FRICTION AND HENCE NO WINDAGE LOSSES. HOWEVER,
ELECTRIC TRANSFORMERS DO SUFFER FROM NEGLIGIBLE
COPPER AND IRON LOSSES. COPPER LOSSES OCCUR DUE TO
HEAT LOSS DURING THE CIRCULATION OF CURRENTS AROUND
THE COPPER WINDINGS, RESULTING IN LOSS OF ELECTRICAL
POWER.
• THIS IS THE GREATEST LOSS IN THE OPERATION OF AN
ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER. IRON LOSSES ARE CAUSED BY THE
LAGGING OF THE MAGNETIC MOLECULES THAT LIE WITHIN THE
CORE. THIS LAGGING HAPPENS IN RESPONSE TO THE
ALTERNATING OF THE MAGNETIC FLUX WHICH RESULTS IN
FRICTION AND THIS FRICTION PRODUCES HEAT WHICH LEADS OF
LOSS OF POWER IN THE CORE. THIS LOSS CAN BE GREATLY
REDUCED IF THE CORE IS CONSTRUCTED FROM SPECIAL STEEL
ALLOYS.
• THE INTENSITY OF POWER LOSS DETERMINES THE EFFICIENCY OF
AN ELECTRICAL TRANSFORMER AND IT IS REPRESENTED IN
TERMS OF POWER LOSS BETWEEN THE PRIMARY AND
SECONDARY WINDINGS. THE RESULTING EFFICIENCY IS THEN
CALCULATED IN TERMS OF RATIO OF THE POWER OUTPUT AT THE
SECONDARY WINDING TO THE POWER INPUT AT THE PRIMARY
WINDING. IDEALLY, THE EFFICIENCY OF AN ELECTRICAL
TRANSFORMER IS ANYWHERE BETWEEN 94% TO 96%