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Husna Binti Takaijudin

Civil Engineering Department

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS
At the end of this course, students are able to:
 Define the momentum function

 Construct M-y Diagram

 Describe the conjugate depth

 Derive the hydraulic jump equations for

rectangular channel
 Understand the occurrence of hydraulic


 F   ( QV )in  ( QV )out

Where β = momentum correction factor

 For stationary control volume (CV), the
forces acting on a CV are hydrostatic forces
at upstream and downstream faces, F1 and
F2 respectively
F  ghc A  hc A
where hc = depth to the centroid of cross
 Applying momentum  Dividing Eq.5.3 by γ
equation to the CV, Q2 Q2
h c1 A1   h c 2 A2  ( Eq.5.4)
assuming β = 1 gA1 gA2
F1 - F2  QV2  QV1 ( Eq.5.1)
F1  QV1  F2  QV2 ( Eq.5.2)
 Defining the momentum
 Applying hydrostatic function as
forces and substitute
to Eq. 5.2 M  Ah c  ( Eq.4)
Q 2 Q 2
h c1 A1   h c 2 A2  ( Eq.5.3) M1  M 2
A1 A2
A 2.0 m wide rectangular channel carries a
discharge of 4.0 m3/s with a depth of flow 1.0
m. Determine the momentum-impulse force,
the critical depth, and the conjugate depth.

Construct the M-y diagram for a triangular
channel with an apex angle of 90° and a
discharge of 10.0 m3/s.

 Also called sequent depth
 Have the same pressure-momentum force
 Defined as the initial and final depths of hydraulic
jump in the sense that they occur simultaneously.
 Symbols – y1 and y2

Conjugate depths

Critical depth
A trapezoidal channel with 3.0 m bottom
width and 1:1 slope carries a discharge of 10.0
m3/s at a slope of 12cm/km. A hydraulic jump
is formed in the channel with an initial depth
of 0.6m. Calculate the momentum function,
the critical depth, and the conjugate depth.

 Critical depth  Energy loss in hydraulic
yc  3
q2 jump
 y2  y1 3
E 
4 y1 y2
 Froude Number
Power lost through the
2 2
V q
Fr 2   3 

gy gy jump
P  gQE
 Conjugate depths
1  Height of jump
1  8 Fr1  1


y1 2
 
 h j  y2  y1
1  8 Fr2  1


y2 2
 

A wide channel carries a specific discharge of
2.2 m2/s. A hydraulic jump is formed in the
channel, after which the depth of flow is found
to be 2.1 m. Find the critical depth, the initial
depth of the jump, the energy lost, and the
horsepower lost through the jump per unit
width of the channel.

F1 F2

Supercritical Critical (Hydraulic Jump) Subcritical

 Involves considerable reduction in the velocity
head associated with an increase the static
 In the dead zone of the jump, rolling of surface,
roiling of water and turbulent eddies are
 These flow patterns are accompanied by a
significant loss of energy, ΔE.
 For horizontal channels, ΔE can be evaluated as
 v
  v

E   y1  1    y2  2 

 2g   2g 
 Dissipation of energy of water flowing over
dams and weirs
 To raise water levels in canals to enhance
irrigation practices and reduce pumping heads
 To reduce uplift pressure under the
foundations of hydraulics structures
 To mix the chemical substances into water for
treatment purposes.
 To create special flow conditions to meet
certain needs at control section, e.g. gauging
stations, flow measurement.
Figure 5.3 Different types of jumps.
 HJ cause intensive scour at their location
 Thus, it should contain stilling basins to
avoid destruction
 Apron length and height of side wall are
designed according to the expected length
and profile of HJ
 Length and height may vary with discharge.