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Ethics and Research

1. Library Research
- Done in the library
- Answers to different questions are
available in the library.

Types of Research
2. Field Research
- done in a natural setting
- barangay, school or factory

Types of Research
3. Laboratory Research
- conducted in controlled
conditions
- study is done in a specified and
equipped area.

Types of Research
Ethics: norms for conduct that
distinguish between acceptable and
unacceptable behavior.
: a method, procedure or
perspective for deciding how to act

Ethics and Research


In planning research, one must identify and consider the
ethical issues and to plan how these issues should be
dealt with.
Ethical Issues:
-Worthiness of the research project
-Competence boundaries
-Informed consent
-Benefits, costs and reciprocity
-harm and risks
-Honesty and trust
-Privacy, confidentiality and anonymity
-Intervention and advocacy
- Research integrity and quality
- Ownership of data and conclusion
- Use and misuse of results
1. Define Research Problem
2. Review the Literature
3. Formulate Hypothesis
4. Design Research
5. Collect Data
6. Analyze Data
7. Interpret and Report

Research Process
1.QualitativeResearch
2.Quantitative
Research

Broad Categories of Research


 Based on approach which
sees the individual and the
world around him as
interconnected.

Qualitative Research
It sees social reality as unique,
then, human behavior can only be
understood by focusing on the
vents based on their meanings for
the people involved.
 It is Exploratory Research
 Gives understanding of underlying reasons
opinions and motivations
 It provides insights into the problem, or
helps to develop ideas or hypothesis
 It is used to uncover trends in thought and
opinions and dig deeper

Qualitative Research
 Sample size is small
 More on a narrative data
 Deals with designs, techniques and
measure that do not produce numerical
data.
Studying the meaning of people’s lives
Representing the views and perspective of
the people or participant
Covering the contextual condition within
which people live
Contributing insights into existing concepts
Use of multiple sources of evidences.

Yin, 2011
Qualitative Research seeks to
collect, integrate and present
data from variety of sources of
evidence as part of a given
study.
1. It is concerned for context and
meaning
2. Naturally Occurring Settings
3. Humans as Instruments
4. Descriptive Data
5. Emergent Data

Characteristics of Qualitative Research


 More associated with hard data
 Used to quantify- put numerical
equivalents of findings
 Quantify the problem by way of
generating mathematical data that can
be transformed into usable statistics

Quantitative Research