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Applied Research:

A Proposal for Action

Ms Heydee Antonio Santos


July1-4, 2013
Instructional Objectives
• To understand ethical implications in
conducting research in a school setting
• To understand the steps needed to
complete an applied research study and
develop an action plan
• To gain knowledge about the values of
meta-analysis
To understand the various types of research
available for use, including the broad
categories of quantitative and qualitative
research.

To understand the value of action research


and program evaluation in school settings,
and to be able to perform both types of
research
Abstract
• Research whether art or science based is
motivated by two things: understanding
and applications.
• “People cannot foresee the future well
enough to predict what's going to develop
from basic research. If we only did applied
research, we would still be making better
spears”. - Dr. George Smoot.
Types of Research
• Ariola (2006, 42-45) provides many types
of researches according to their various
distinctive features:
1. According to purpose:
a) Directive research: tells what should be
done according to the findings.
b) Illuminative research: is concerned
with the interaction of the components of
the variables being investigated .
c) Predictive or prognostic research:
determines the future operation of the
variables under study for the purpose of
controlling them.
2. According to goal
a) Basic or pure research: it is done for the
development of theories or principles.
However, it has no immediate or planned
application; it may later result in further
research of an applied nature.
b) Applied research: This is the testing of
theories and principles. Its purpose is to
improve a product or process – testing
theoretical concepts in actual problem
situations.
What is applied research?
Could cover any of the following:
• Research designed for the purpose of
producing results that may be applied to real
world situations.

• Any research which is used to answer a


specific question, determine why something
failed or succeeded, solve a specific,
pragmatic problem, or to gain better
understanding.
Comparison Between Basic and
Applied Research
• The terms basic and applied imply a clear
distinction between two classes of research.
• In basic research, general theories, ideas, and
questions are explored and tested. It may even
be argued that this type of research should not
have priority, because it does not always result
in an immediate benefit to humans, but without
basic research, many applied research programs
would be hard-pressed to get the start they need.
Applied /Action Research

• is a process in which participants examine their


own educational practice systematically and
carefully,
• uses techniques of research in order to improve a
teacher’s own practice.
• In most of its forms it requires investigator
participation
• is usually qualitative in design.
Action Research Process
• An emerging process which takes
shape as understanding increases;
• A repetitive process which leads
towards a better understanding of what
happens.

From Martin Ryder University of


Colorado at Denver School of
Education
Action Research Cycle
1. Think about the problem
2. What is the question you want to answer?
3. Plan ways to get the answers - involve
questioners
4. Do fieldwork to get answers and improve your
understanding of the problem
5. From the answers generate an imaginative
idea of what to do to change and improve
6. New actions. put ideas into practice (stop,
reflect, is question answered, if no repeat)
The cycle

From: Yoland Wadsworth What is Participatory Action


Research? November 1998
Some applied research
questions
• Why are students doing poorly?
• How can I make my lesson more interesting?
• How can I teach this more effectively?
• What would help this lesson?
• What class management systems would help?
• What strategy need by students to cope the lesson?
• Problems faced by teachers, policy planner
administrator are solved through Applied
Research
• Example
• Usage of textbook
• Day- to - day testing
• Parental Co-operation
• Improvement in examination system
• Library and lab. facilities
Review the cycle again

From: Yoland Wadsworth What is Participatory Action


Research? November 1998
Methodologies
• Choose the correct method to answer your question
• Do you seek
– quantitative, measurable, mathematical, answers?
– qualitative answers to questions governing human
behavior?
Methodologies
• Applied /Action Research is a process with
diverse methodologies
– Quantitative
• Experimental control
• Manipulation of variables
– Qualitative
• Participant observation
• In-depth interviews
• Content analysis
– Mixed methods
• Most Action Research is primarily qualitative
Triangulate qualitative data
• Interviews
• Portfolios
• Diaries
• Audio tapes
• Surveys
• Case studies
• Participant observation
LAB Action Rese
arch
Research proposal

• Choose a topic that will help improve your


teaching practice
• Identify the steps needed (see the cycle
fig.)
• Write a brief outline for a proposal
following guidelines
Writing for publication

• Introduction
– The problem, the literature review
– Conclude introduction with purpose of study
• Method
– Participants, research design, materials
– Procedure, analyses
• Results
• Discussion

http://www.aect.org/Intranet/Publications/Research/4.html
Improve your proposals
• Good topic
• Workable plan
• Concrete information
• Structured research method
• Good theoretical foundation
• Planning-action-reflection-change
• Evidence of good writing
Reasons for proposal rejection
• Not action research, belongs in general research
• Methods and procedures not action research
• Missing cycle: planning-action-reflection-change
• Problem not clearly stated
• Questions, purposes, methods, data collection
unclear
• Uses old data (last semester)
• Doesn’t follow guidelines for research ethics
• Doesn’t suggest changes to improve teaching
Models

Examples of successful proposals can be


provided to you by different Development
Center
Designing General Research
• Select a topic
• Identify the research problem
• Conduct a literature search
• State the research questions
• Determine research methods
• Identify data analysis procedures

http://www.aect.org/Intranet/Publications/Research/index.html
Steps of Action/Applied Research
I. Identification of the Problem
II. Formation of Objectives and
Hypothesis
III.Collection of Data by using suitable
Tools/Techniques
IV. Preparation of suitable Action Plan
V. Analysis and Interpretation of Data
VI.Result and Conclusion
I. Identification of the Problem:
Ex.
“How to Remove the Complexes of Shy and Cowardly
students in ”Grade 8

Introduction:

- about the background of the problem.


- Importance of the problem.
- If any studies has been conducted in this area
should be analyzed.
- how the result will help the students.
Probable Causes:
(i) Individual differences
(ii) Emotional block
(iii) Father’s profession
(iv) Physical defects
(v) Lack of vocabulary
(vi) Backwardness
(vii) Difference in the age group
(viii) Lack of mental ability
(ix) Habit and family impressions
II. Objectives of the Study:

1. To study the causes of complexes of shy and cowardly


students.
2. To remove the complexes of shy and cowardly
students.

Hypothesis of the Study:


“If the teacher tries to develop the vocabulary and
power of expression of the students through debates,
discussion, arguments, dramatic performances, oral
reading, lectures etc. the students will develop the
desire to surpass other students, to perform better than
them; in this way, they will overcome their
shortcomings and then be able to work fearlessly and
frankly with their companions”
III. Collection of the Data

Base – Line Data:


“All data relating to the physical,
sociological, economic, cultural, academic
and environmental situation of the child, the
child’s history and information about his
trait”
Tools for Collection of Data:

1. Personal Interview
2. Questionnaire
3. Observation
4. Anecdotal Record
5. Cumulative Records
IV. Preparation of Suitable
Action Plan
Write up 5
which will
A Write up 3 form chapters F
which will 4&5
c form chapters O
3&4
t Write up 2
• Develop
conclusions
C
i which will • Data analysis • Make U
form chapters
v Write up 1
which will
2& 3 (descriptive)
recommendations
• Propose future
S
• Gauge findings
i form chapters • Data collection
with objectives
research
1&2
t • Follow ups • Make sure Tables &
• At least 15
references
Propose topic
i Identify problems
• Transcription Charts are used to
support discussions
• Content editing

e Identify variables
• Data Entry • Discussions
• English editing
• Submission of
• Data Mining
s Data accessibility • Managerial
implications
write up
Instrumentation • Proposed Tables
and Charts
July August September October
VI. Analysis and Interpretation
of Data:
 Testing of Hypothesis:
The data will be analyzed and final testing
& evaluation of the hypothesis will be done
on the basis of the work performed in
accordance with the time-table. Decision
will be taken about the
acceptance/rejection of the hypothesis.
VII. Result and Conclusion:

Basing upon the analysis of the data,


the result and conclusion will be stated
and it will be observed that the students
those are identified with complexes of
shy and coward have removed their
earlier attitude and working with frank
and fearlessly with the group.
Thank You !
Good luck to your Research
Action Research links
• LAB Action Research (PDF excellent, includes
how to)
http://www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/themes_ed/act_research.
pdf

• Action Research Resources (very


comprehensive list ,Bob Dick thru 2004)
http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arhome.html

• Action Research articles and resources from


CU Denver (Martin Ryder)
http://carbon.cudenver.edu/~mryder/itc/act_res.html

• AERA 2001 Action Research Papers (3 papers


accepted at the American Educational
Research Association) http://educ.queensu.ca/~ar/
More Links
• Action Research (short article about)
http://www.infed.org/research/b-actres.htm

• Action Research, Strategy (very simple,


includes one link and other refs.)
http://www.newhorizons.org/strategies/action_research/f
ront_action.htm

• Qualitative Research Net (online journal


that promotes sharing) http://www.qualitative-
research.net/index.php/fqs