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Addis Ababa University

Addis Ababa Institute of Technology

School of Mechanical & Industrial Engineering

Power Plant Engineering

Combustion Mechanism and
Combustion Mechanism &equipment
For smooth and efficient combustion, there are some requirements :
Fresh charge of fuel
 should be freely ignited as it enters the burning zone.
Steady combustion
 the basis for obtaining the desired amount of heat release.
Adequate combustion space
 should be provided for driving the process.
Sufficient temperature
 the combustion gases should be maintained.
Quantity of air supply
 should is important in achieving proper combustion.
Method of air supply
 another vital factor of efficient combustion.
• So considering all these requirements, there is a need of a combustion equipment.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 2

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Combustion equipments
• Appliances that are used for burning fuels for heating.
• Combustion equipments can be used for solids, liquids, and gaseous fuels.
• These allow the proper combustion of fuels.
 heaters,
 ovens,
 stoves,
 furnaces,
 fireplaces,
 dryers,
 burners,
 stokers, and many more

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 3

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
furnace Common in use are following furnace
– Fuel is burnt in a confined space. types for solid firing:
• fixed bed
– provides supports and enclosures for burning equipment. • stoker-firing system (firing on grate)
What may be the material of furnace ? • fluidized beds (bubble, circulating),
• Simply furnace walls consists of… • cyclone.
• an interior face of refractory material such as fireclay, silica,
alumina and kaolin,
• an intermediate layer of insulating materials such as
magnesia with
• the exterior casing made up of steel sheet.
• Smaller boilers used solid refractory walls but they are air cooled.
• larger units, bigger boilers use water cooled furnaces.
– burn solid fuels such as coal, coke, wood
– Solid fuels require a grate in the furnace to hold the bed of fuel.
– to burn pulverized coal and liquid fuels.
Boiler furnace tasks
The most important task of the boiler furnace is to provide conditions for proper combustion of fuel which is
achieved by:
1. Fuel supply of the boiler furnace at the required rate and keeping it in the furnace by the time sufficient
for burnt out.
2. Air supply of the boiler furnace at the required rate and proper mixing with the fuel.
AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 4
Combustion Mechanism &equipment
How to select proper type and size of furnace..??
It depends upon the following factors:
 Type of fuel to be burnt.
 Type of firing to be used.
 Amount of heat to be recovered.
 Amount of steam to be produced
 Pressure and temperature desired.
 Grate area required.
 Ash fusion temperature.
 Flame length.
 Amount of excess air to be used.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 5

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
• According to the method of firing fuel furnaces are classified into two categories:
Grate fired furnaces:
 They are used to burn solid fuels.
 They may have a stationary or a movable bed of fuel.
• These furnaces are classified as under depending upon the method used to fire the fuel and
remove ash and slag.
1. Hand fired and Semi-mechanized
2. Stocker fired.
• Hand fired and semi-mechanized furnaces are designed with stationary fire grates.
• stoker furnaces with traveling grates or stokers.
Chamber fired furnaces:
 They are used to burn pulverized fuel, liquid and gaseous fuels.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 6

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Application Areas
Grate firing
 employed in domestic and industrial units and in thermal power
Pulverized fuel and cyclone burners
 used in thermal power stations and large industrial units.
Fluidized bed
used in refrigeration and for advanced applications.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 7

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
• Classification of boilers based on combustion equipment

Chain Grate

Overfeed Stokers Travelling grate

Hand fired

Spreader type
Stoker fired

Solid fuels firing Single retort

Multi retort
Unit system
Pulverized fuel
Central system

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 8

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Hand firing system:
• it is simple method- less capital investment and used for smaller plants.
•In small boilers, the grate is stationary and coal is fed manually by shovels.
 it is difficult to achieve the uniform combustion;
 it gives low combustion efficiency.
 Not a continuous firing process
 Very old system
 Only very small furnaces can be fired by this method
 Poor response to load fluctuations.
 Controlling draught is difficult.
• Hand fired grates are made up of cast iron.
• The grate divides it into the furnace space in which
 the fuel is fired
 an ash pit through which the necessary air required for combustion is
• The heat liberation per unit of furnace volume is given by the following
𝐡 = 𝒎ሶ 𝒇 𝐱 𝑳𝑯𝑽 𝐱 𝐕

h = Heat liberation per unit volume

mf = Rate of fuel consumption (kg/sec)
LHV = Lower heating value of fuel (kcal/kg)
V = Volume of furnace (m3).
AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 9
Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Stoker firing:
• Used to feed solid fuels into the furnace in medium and large size power plants.
• A power operated fuel feeding mechanism and grate.
• A boiler that automatically feeds( or stokes) the boiler.
 uniform operating condition
 higher burning rate
 it allows to burn large quantities of fuel,
 greater efficiency,
 moving grates or stokers are employed
 less labor of handling ash
 self cleaning.
• Stokers may be of the following types:
 Travelling grate stoker
 Chain grate stoker
 Spreader stoker
 Vibrating grate stoker
 Underfeed stoker.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 10
Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Advantages of stoker firing Disadvantages of stoker firing
 A power operated fuel feeding mechanism and
grate  Construction is complicated.
 Large quantities of fuel can be fed into the  Capital cost is high
furnace. Thus greater combustion capacity is  There is always a certain amount of loss
achieved, of coal in the form of riddling through
 Poorer grades of fuel can be burnt easily. the grates.
 A greater flexibility of operations assured
 Steam demand due to load fluctuations
 Less smoke produced
on plant can not be met efficiently
 Generally less building space is necessary
 Can be used for small or large boiler units  Excessive wear of parts.
 Very reliable , maintenance charges are  their more costs of operation and
reasonably low repairing resulting from high furnace
 Stoker save labor of handling ash and are self- temperatures.
 better furnace conditions can be maintained by
feeding coal at a uniform rate.
 save coal and increase the efficiency of coal firing

AAiT 3/25/2019 School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 11
Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Types of stoker :- based on way of feeding Coal on grate
• A grate is used at furnace bottom to hold a bed of fuel.
• There are two ways of feeding coal on to the grate
 Overfeed stockers
 under feed stockers.


• The majority of burners operate on overfeed • Coal and air fed from bottom.
principle as fresh coal is dropped onto the fuel • Layers from bottom:
bed.  Green Coal.
• Coal is fed from above, air from bottom.  Ignition Zone ( VM + CO + CO2 + N2 + H2)
• Layers from above (after flame):  Incandescent Coke (CO2 + O2 + N2 + H2O)
 Fresh Coal zone  Ash
 Drying Zone- losing moisture  Flame
 Distillation Zone- losing Volatile Content.
 Combustion Zone- incandescent Coke.
 Ash zone.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 12

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Principles of overfeed stokers The mechanics of combustion in overfeed stoker is :
1. The pressurized air coming from F.D. fan enters under the
bottom of the grate. The air passing through the grate is heated
by absorbing the heat from the ash and grate itself, whereas the
ash and grate are cooled.
 The hot air then passes through a bed of incandescent
coke. As the hot air passes through incandescent coke, the
O2 reacts with C to form C02. (𝐂 + 𝐎𝟐 = 𝐂𝐎𝟐 )
 Generally, for a fuel bed of 8 cm deep, all the O2 in the air
disappears in the incandescent region.
 The gases leaving the incandescent region of fuel bed
consist of N2,CO2, CO, H2 and H2O.
2. The raw coal is continuously supplied on the surface of the bed.
Here it loses its volatile matter by distillation.
3. The gases leaving the upper surface of the fuel bed contain
• Fresh Coal zone combustible volatile matter formed from the raw fuel, N2, CO2,
• Drying zone:- losing moisture CO, H2 and H2O.
• Distillation zone:- losing volatile  Additional secondary air is supplied at top of the bed to
• Combustion zone:- incandescent burn the remaining combustible gases (volatile matter +
CO + H2 ).
coke, where the fixed carbon is
 The secondary air is supplied at a very high speed to
create turbulence which is required for complete
• ash combustion of unburned gases.
4. The burned gases entering boiler contain N2, CO2, 02 and H20 .

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 13

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Types of overfeed stoker Chain & traveling grate stokers
A. Conveyer stoker • Consists of an endless chain (Cast Iron connected by pin)which forms the support
 Travelling grate stoker for the fuel bed.
 chain grate stoker • The chain is held over two sprockets( front end is driven by an electric motor
B. Spreader stoker (variable speed driven mechanism)).
• The coal is fed through a hopper which is carried by the chain to the other end,
hence into the furnace.
• The rate of fuel supplied and heat to the boiler can be controlled by two means.
• By controlling the depth of the coal bed on the grate by controlling the feed
to the hopper.
• the speed of the chain grate can be adjusted to meet the boiler operation
• Combustion is essentially complete at the back end of belt, and ash is dumped off
into an ash pit there.
• The chain grate stokers are widely used for burning non-caking (that does
not form a solid mass while burning),

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 14

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Travelling grate stoker
Advantages: • There is always some loss of coal in the form of fine
• Simple in construction and Initial cost is particles carried with the ashes.
low. • Temperature of preheated air is limited to 180°C.
• Maintenance cost is low • Not suitable for high capacity boiler. The amount of coal
carried on the grate is small as the increase in grate size
• Self cleaning stoker
creates additional problems.
• Heat release rate can be controlled just • Clinker trouble are very common.
by controlling the speed of chain. • These grates are suitable only when fuel burns before it
• It gives high heat release rates per unit reaches the rear end of the furnace. The rate of burning
volume of the furnace. with this stoker is 200 to 300 kg per m2 per hour when
forced draught is used.

vibrating grate stoker Notes

 Chain grate stokers are best suited for non-
• Another type of travelling stoker .
caking, high volatile and high ash coals.
• It operates in a manner similar to that of  The bar grate stokers burn lignite and small size
chain grate stoker except that the fuel bed anthracite coals successfully.
movement are accomplished by vibration.  Vibrating grate stokers are suitable for medium
• The vibration and the inclination of the grate volatile bituminous coals and lignites but at
cause the fuel bed to move through furnace reduced burning rates.
towards ash pit.  The travelling stokers are not suitable for caking
coal at it requires agitation during burning.
AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 15
Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Zones of combustion on grate

3/25/2019 16
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Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Spreader stoker • The coal burns on this stoker remains partly in suspension
and partly on the grate.
• The spreader stoker installation consists of variable
feeding device:-
 a mechanism for throwing the coal uniformly on
the grate and with suitable openings for admitting
the air.
• Air supplied by F.D. fan enters the furnace through the
openings provided in the grate.
• A portion of this air is used to burn the fuel on the bed
and remaining air is used to burn volatile matter in
• Secondary supply of air creates high turbulence and
complete the combustion of volatile matter and
suspended particles.
• Spreader stokers capable of burning any type of coal.
• The fuel feed rate and the supplied to the boiler can be
controlled by controlling the feed to the hopper are by
controlling the spreader speed.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 17

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Spreader stoker
Advantages: Disadvantages:
• A wide variety of coal from lignite to semi • Spreader does not work satisfactory with varying size
anthracite as well as high ash coal can be burn of coal.
• Coal particles trapping mechanism is necessary to
• Clinkering difficulty is reduced by spreading
action. prevent their escape with excess air.
• The coking tendency of the coal is reduced • The problem of fly ash is high. It requires an dust
before it reaches the grate by the release of collector to prevent the environment pollution.
volatile gases which burn in suspension. • Clinker problem can not be avoided.
• The use of high temperature preheated air is • Many fine unburnt carbon particles are also carried
possible. with the exhaust gases and it is necessary to trap these
• It gives quick response to load change similar and return to the furnace for burning. Otherwise it
to pulverized fuel system because there is would add as a loss to the combustion system.
only a small amount of fuel on the grate at any
time and most of heat is released during • Its operating efficiency decreases with varying sizes of
burning of the coal in suspension. coal.
• This fire bed gives equal pressure drop and • It is not possible to burn varying sizes of coal and only
proper air distribution so that combustion can crushed, sized coal can be used.
be completed with minimum quantity of
excess air.
• Its operation cost is considerably low.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 18

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
The mechanism of combustion in under-feed stoker is described :
Principle of underfeed stokers • the fuel and air move in the same direction.
• The coal is fed from below the grate by a screw-conveyer
or ram
1. Air after passing through the holes in the grate meets the raw
coal. The heat for distillation comes by conduction from the
mass of incandescent fuel bed which exists above the raw
• The air mixes with the formed volatile matter and passes
through the ignition zone and then enters into the region
of incandescent coke.
2. The reactions which take place in the incandescent zone of
underfeed stoker are very much similar as in the feed
incandescent zone of overfeed stoker.
3. The gases coming out of raw fuel bed pass through a region of
incandescent ash on surface of the fuel and finally discharged
to the furnace with the constituents like over-feed stoker
4. The supply of secondary air is required in this case as the
gases coming out of fuel bed also contain combustible matter.
• The gases in this type stoker are at higher temperature than
over feed stoker.
• The under feed method is best suited for burning semi
Bituminous and Bituminous coals high in volatile matter.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 19

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Single retort stoker

• The fuel is placed in large hopper on the front of the

furnace, and then it is further fed by reciprocating ram
or screw conveyor into the bottom of the horizontal
• The air is supplied through the tuyeres provided along
the upper edge of the grate.
• The ash and clinkers are collected on the ash plate
provided with dumping arrangement.
• The coal feeding capacity of a single retort stoker varies
from 100 to 2000 kg per hour

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 20

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Multi retort stoker

• It is generally used for increasing the burning capacity of the stoker.

• It consists of a series of alternate retorts and tuyere boxes for supply of
• Each retort is fitted with a reciprocating ram for feeding and pusher
plates for the uniform distribution of coal.
• Coal---falling from hopper-----push forward------inward stroke of stoker----
--distribution ram(pusher)---push entire coal----down the length of stoker.
• Slope of stoker----help in moving the fuel bed and fuel bed movement
keeps it slightly agited to break up clinker formation.
• Primary air supplied to fuel bed from wind box situated below stoker. The
partly burnt coal moves on the extension grate.
• The quality of air supplied is regulated by an air damper.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 21

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Multi retort stoker
Advantages: disadvantages:
• Since the combustion rate is high, such a • The operation and maintenance is expensive.
stoker is most suitable for high capacity power • The initial investment is high.
plants. • Ash clinker problems may arise.
• The combustion efficiency of this stoker is • It needs a larger area for installation and
very high. operation.
• As the fuel is pushed off by the pushers, they • Low grade, high ash fuels cannot be burnt
perform the cleaning action as well. successfully.
• Automatic combustion control can be
adopted in this stoker.
• This stoker can respond quickly to variations
in demand.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 22

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Pulverized fuel firing
• Coal is reduced to a fine powder in grinding mills or pulverizers.
• the coal is powdered and then charged into the combustion chamber with the help of hot air current.
Primary air.
 The air required to carry the pulverized coal and dry it before entering the combustion chamber.
Main Purpose
• to increase its surface area of exposure to the combustion process, thus promotes the rapid combustion
without need of supplying much of excess air.
 which results in faster and efficient combustion.
Secondary air
 Amount of air which is blown in separately to complete the combustion.
 The resulting turbulence in the combustion chamber helps for uniform mixing of fuel and air.
• Pulverized coal firing systems are universally adopted far large scale power plants.
• The choice of pulverized fuel firing system depends upon
 the size of the boiler unit,
 type of coal available,
 cost of coal,
 type of load (i.e., fluctuating or constant),
 the load factor and
 availability of trained personnel.
• The efficiency of the pulverized fuel firing system mostly depends upon the size of the particles of the coal
in the coal powder .

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 23

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Pulverized fuel firing
Advantages Disadvantages
• Large surface area per unit mass allows faster • Capital cost is high
and efficient combustion. • Operation and maintenance cost is high
• Lost of fly ash in the exhaust which makes the
• Less excess air is required for complete removing of fine dust uneconomical.
combustion • The removal of liquid slag formed from low fusion
• Any type of coal can be used temperature ash requires special handling
• Large amount of heat release makes it suitable equipments.
for super thermal power station • Skilled operators are required
• High air pollution due to emission of fine particles
• Carryover of unburnt fuel to ash is nil of dirt and grit.
• Low ash handling problem • It produces fly-ash/fine dust and needs costly fly-
• Operate successfully with gas and oil fired ash removal equipments like electrostatic
system precipitators.
• The chances of explosion are high as coal burns
• Less furnace volume required like a gas.
• Smokeless operation • The storage of powdered coal requires special
• No moving parts in furnace so life of the system attention as it has possibilities of fire hazards.
is more.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 24

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Pulverized mill
• Pulverizers are devices that are used to produce coal in the powder form.
• The pulverizing process consists of three stages
I. Feeding
II. Drying
III. Grinding .
• Feeding system controls automatically:-
 air required for drying
 transporting pulverized fuel to the burner depending on the boiler demand.
 For pulverization of coal has to be dry and dusty.
• Dryer are an integral part of the pulverizing equipment. For drying coal part of primary air passing
through the air preheater at 3500c is utilized.
• Grinding and equipment used for this action is known as the grinding mill.
• Four different types of pulverizing mills are used
 Ball mill
 Ball and race mill
 Hammer mill
 Bowl mill

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 25

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Ball and race mill for pulverizing coal
• This is a low speed unit in which grinding pressure is
maintained by adjustable springs.
• The coal passes between the two rotating elements again and
again until it has been pulverized to desired degree of

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 26

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Pulverized fuel firing

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Combustion Mechanism &equipment
• It is a family of equipment in which coal is ground, dried and fed to the burners of a boiler furnace.
• There are two methods used to feed the pulverized fuel to the combustion chamber of the boiler
 Unit or direct system
 Central or bin system
Unit or direct system
• each burner of the plant has its own pulverizer
and handling units.
• It consists of a raw coal bunker, a feeder,
pulverizing mill, separator, and the burner.
• The number of units required depends on the
capacity of the boiler.
• Coal from bunker drops on to the feeder.
• Coal is dried in the feeder by passage of hot air.
• The coal then moves to a mill for pulverizing.
• A fan supplies primary air to the pulverizing mill.
• Pulverized coal and primary air are mixed and
sent to a burner where secondary air is added
helps in creating turbulence.
• A separator is provided to separate the grains of
bigger size from the powder and returned to the
pulverize for further crushing.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 28

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Unit system
Advantages: Disadvantages:
• Simple in layout, design, operation • If one pulverizing unit goes out then its
• Initial cost is less corresponding boiler unit has to be shutdown.
• Combustion is controlled directly after pulverize. • Pulverizing unit operates at variable load as per
• Lower maintenance charge the load on power plant which results in poor
performance at part load.
• Less space required
• Lesser degree of flexibility.
• No drying unit required.
• Greater wear off on blades as these handle both
air and abrasive coal particles.
• Exhaust fan is subjected to excessive wear since
it handles coal dust particles.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 29

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Central or Bin systems
• Coal is pulverized on a central basis, the pulverized fuel is stored in a central bin and then distributed to each
burner with the help of high pressure air current.
• The coal from raw coal bunkers is fed to the drier. The coal drying is achieved by using hot gases, preheated
air or bled steam.
• Feeder is used to feed dried coal to the pulverize.
• the pulverized coal is carried from the pulverize mill with the help of air and it is separated in the cyclone
separator. Oversized coal particles are fed back to the pulverizing mill for further processing.
• The separated pulverized coal is transferred to the central bin with the help of conveyer.
• Forced draught fan is used to supply primary air to feeder.
• The mixture of pulverized coal and air is then supplied to the burners.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 30

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Bin or Central system

Advantages: Disadvantages:
• Greater flexibility and better response. • Initial cost is high and occupies a large space.
• Less power consumption • Dryer is essential
• Burner operation is independent of coal • Operation and maintenance cost are high
preparation. • Coal transportation system becomes more
• The fan handles only air therefore no problem of complex.
excessive wear of fan blades. • The overall power consumption per ton of coal
• Pulverizer can be shut down where there is handled is higher than unit system due to high
enough reserve of pulverized coal. power consumption by auxiliaries.
• Offers good control over the fineness of coal • The operation and maintenance charges are
• Less labor higher than unit system of same capacity.
• Pulverized capacity is low • There is possibility of fire hazard due to the
stored pulverized coal.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 31

Combustion Mechanism &equipment

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Combustion Mechanism &equipment
 sea or river
 Rail
 Ropeways
 Road
 Pipe lines

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Combustion Mechanism &equipment
• The type of equipment to be used for unloading the coal received at power station depends on how coal is
received at the power station.
• If coal is delivered by trucks, there is no need of unloading device as the trucks may dump the coal to the
outdoor storage.
• In case the coal is brought by railway wagons, ships or boats, the unloading may be done by car shakes,
rotary car dumpers, cranes, grab buckets and coal accelerators.
• Rotary car dumpers although costly, are quite efficient for unloading closed wagons.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 34

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Preparation: After preparation coal is transferred to the dead storage by :
• When the coal delivered is in 1. Belt conveyors.
the form of big lumps and it is 2. Screw conveyors.
not of proper size, the 3. Bucket elevators.
preparation (sizing) of coal can 4. Grab bucket elevators.
be achieved by crushers, 5. Skip hoists.
breakers, sizers driers and 6. Flight conveyor.
magnetic separators.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 35

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
• It consists of an endless belt, moving over a pair of end • It consists of an endless helicoids screw fitted to
drums (rollers). The belt is made, up of rubber or canvas. a shaft.
• Belt conveyor is suitable for the transfer of coal over • The screw while rotating in a trough transfers
long distances. the coal from feeding end to the discharge end.
• It is used in medium and large power plants. • This system is suitable, where coal is to be
• The initial cost of the system is not high and power transferred over shorter distance and space
consumption is also low.
limitations exist.
• The inclination at which coal can be successfully
elevated by belt conveyor is about 20°.
• The initial cost of the system is low.
• Average speed of belt conveyors varies between 200- • It suffers from the drawbacks that the power
300 R.P.M. consumption is high and there is considerable
wear of screw.
• Rotation of screw varies between 75-125 R.P.M.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 36

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Advantages of belt conveyor Advantages of screw conveyor
I. Its operation is smooth and clean. • It requires minimum space and is cheap in cost
II. It requires less power as compared to other types • It is most simple and compact
of systems. • It can be made dust tight.
III. Large quantities of coal can be discharged quickly
and continuously.
IV. Material can be transported on moderates inclines. • The power consumption is high.
• The maximum length limited to 30 meters.
Disadvantages; • The wear and tear is very high therefore life of
I. It is not suitable for short distances and greater
the equipment is less.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 37

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
• Used for vertical lifts.
• It consists of buckets fixed to a chain. The chain
moves over two wheels.
• The coal is carried by the buckets from bottom
and discharged at the top.
• Continuous type bucket capacity is more than
that of centrifugal type.
• Height: 30.5 m max
• Inclination with vertical: 300
• Chain speed
 Centrifugal: 75 m/min
 Continuous: 35 m/min
• Capacity: 60 tones/hr

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 38

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
GRAB BUCKET ELEVATOR: • It consists of one or two strands of chain to
• It lifts and transfers coal on a single rail or track which steel scraper or flights are attached,
from one point to the other. which scrap the coal through a depression
• The coal lifted by grab buckets is transferred to having identical shape.
overhead bunker or storage. • It is used to drag or push pulverized or
• This system requires less power for operation and granulated solid materials. This coal is
requires minimum maintenance. discharged in the bottom of trough.
• The grab bucket conveyor can be used with crane • It is low in first cost but has large energy
or tower. Although the initial cost of this system consumption. There is considerable wear.
is high but operating cost is less. • It may be used for coal as well as ash.

AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 39

Combustion Mechanism &equipment
COAL STROAGE Dead storage or Outdoor storage
Why storage ?? • The coal stored has the tendency to whether (to
• It gives protection against the interruption/ combine with oxygen of air).
delay of coal supplies. • Due to low oxidation the coal may ignite
• Also when the prices are low, the coal can be
• This is avoided by storing coal in the form of
purchased and stored for future use.
piles so that air cannot pass through the coal
How much ?? piles.
• The amount of coal to be stored depends on the The coal is stored by the following methods:
availability of space for storage, transportation Stocking the coal in heats.
facilities, the amount of coal that will whether • The coal is piled on the ground up to 10-12
away and nearness to coal mines of the power m height. The pile top should be given a
station. slope in the direction in which the rain may
• Usually coal required for one month operation be drained off.
of power plant is stored in case of power • The sealing of stored pile is desirable in
stations situated at longer distance from the order to avoid the oxidation of coal after
collieries whereas coal need for about 15 days is packing an air tight layer of coal. Asphalt,
stored in case of power station situated near to fine coal dust and bituminous coating are
collieries. the materials commonly used for this
Any disadvantage?? purpose.
Under water storage.
• Storage of coal for longer periods is not
• The possibility of slow oxidation and
advantageous because it blocks the capital and
spontaneous combustion
results in deterioration of the quality of coal. 40
AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 40
Combustion Mechanism &equipment
Live storage or Active storage
• Live coal storage implies the reclaiming and combustion of coal that has been stored for only a
relatively short time, usually less than a week.
• Coal from a live coal (storage pile is usually supplied to combustion equipment without the use of
mobile equipment.
• The coal is usually stored in the vertical cylinder bunkers or coal bins or silo. Coal from silos is
transferred to the boiler grate.
In plant handling
• It is referred to transferring coal from dead or live storage to the boiler furnace.
• For in plant handling, the same equipments are used as used for coal transfer like belt conveyors,
screw conveyors, bucket elevators etc.

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Combustion Mechanism &equipment


AAiT School of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering - SMIE 42