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Transféré par Achintya Sarkar

This is intoroduction to GPS by Dr A K Sarkar, Faculty DIAT Pune

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Dr. A K Sarkar

Scientist

Directorate of Systems

DRDL, Hyderabad-58

Workshop on

KALMAN FILTERING AND ITS APPLICATIONS,

conducted by IISc, Bengaluru, at LRDE

03-03-2011

Historical Evolution of Navigation

Receiver model

Noise sources

GPS Measurements

A BRIEF HISTORY OF

NAVIGATION

from one place to another.

which is the command "sail".

Navigation, Guidance and

Control

Attitude (kinematic state vectors)

from the vehicle's current location to a designated location (target)

thrustors, etc., needed to track guidance commands .

DIFFERENT PERIODS OF

• MythologicalNAVIGATION

Phase

(10000 BCE – 900 CE)

The period from 0 CE – 900 CE can be called

as the twilight period due to many important

discoveries were initiated.

• Medieval Period

(900 CE – 1900 CE)

• Modern Period

(1900 CE – till date)

The above are not water tight compartments

but roughly indicative of the divisions.

Mythological Phase (10000 BCE – 900 CE)

• 10000 - 5000 BCE Commencement of navigation over

land using landmarks.

• 5000 - 4000 BCE Construction of sailing vessels in

ancient cultures.

• 4000 - 2000 BCE Contact between Asian and

European civilizations.

• 2000 - 1000 BCE Commercial sailing activities of

Indians and Chinese.

• 1000 - 0 BCE Circumnavigation of Africa by

Pilotage. Curved Spherical Earth. Creation of

astronimical instruments

• 0 - 900 CE Celestial Navigation by star compass

Medieval Period

(900 CE – 1900 CE)

magnetic compass, sextant, together with

charts, later calculus helped explore the

planet more effectively for commerce and

conquest. Towards the end of this period

the seeds were laid for inertial and radio

navigation.

Modern Period

(1900 CE – till date)

Advances with Newton’s laws of motion and

gravity, gyros, accelerometers, and radio

signals, led to inertial, radio and satellite

navigation systems. Integration of many

navigational systems by using in particular

Kalman filter.

Sea Routes around India and

Southeast Asia

DIFFERENT NAVIGATION METHODS

means of sight or radar to guide oneself to a destination,

sometimes with the help of a map or nautical chart. Recognizes

landmarks. It is older than human kind.

• Dead reckoning: Process of estimating one's current position

based upon a previously determined position. Error in present

position affects future prediction

• Celestial navigation: Uses time and measurement angles of

celestial objects to obtain position using almanacs, and

spherical trigonometry.

• Radio navigation: Uses radio wave phase or time difference

signals from stations to determine the position.

• Radar navigation: Uses radar to determine the distance

from or bearing of objects whose position is known.

• Inertial navigation: This senses the initial position, velocity,

and attitude and uses the measured attitude rates and

DEAD RECKONING

SYSTEMS

• “Extrapolation” system: position is derived

from a “series” of velocity, heading,

acceleration or rotation measurements relative

to an initial position.

• To determine current position you must know

the past position.

• Heading and speed or velocity of the system

• Inertial navigation systems.

• Present day INS and GPS are only dead

reckoning systems.

Modern Period (1900 CE – till date)

• 1900 – 1910 CE Change from magnetic compass to

gyrocompass. Contribution to wireless telegraphy.

• 1910 – 1920 CE Combination of gyros and

accelerometers to produce an INS. Catastrophic Titanic

shipwreck leads to wireless transmitters on ships.

• 1920 – 1930 CE Computation of gravitation has an

error due to earth’s rotation and Schuler tuning is a

must in an INS.

• 1930 – 1940 CE Character of gyro to remain stable

used in shipboard platforms. First gyro controlled

guidance system used by Goddard.

• 1940 – 1950 CE The long range radio navigation

(LORAN) system developed.

Modern Period (1900 CE – till date)

(Contd1)

• 1950 – 1960 CE Early gimbaled gyro systems. Strap

Down Inertial Navigation System. SPUTNIK.

Commencement of satellite navigation. Change from

orbit determination to position

• 1960 – 1970 CE Conceptual development of satellite

navigation.

• 1970 – 1980 CE Commencement of the development

of RLG and FOG. Mature Gimbaled INS technology.

Concept development and validation for GPS

satellites.

Modern Period (1900 CE – till date)

(Contd2)

• 1980 – 1990 CE Decade of the RLG. Civilian

GPS receiver for survey and Geodesy. Civil

aviation use of GPS. GLONASS.

• 1990 – 2000 CE Combining the reliability of

SDINS and the price and performance of MEMS

sensors leads to MEMS breakthrough. Combat

and peace keeping use of GPS. Civilian use

increases for GPS and GLONASS. Selective

Availability turned off.

• 2000 – 2010 CE Competitive or cooperative

GNSS. GPS aided MEMS inertial system

introduced.

Schuler Tuning

Modification to the electronic control system used in INS

that accounts for earth’s curvature

keeps track of position, determines directions with respect to

three axes (north, east, down).

inertial platform mounted on Gimbal with gyro that keep it

pointing in a fixed orientation in space.

vehicle moves on the curved surface of the Earth

platform always pointing 'north', 'east' and 'down', so it gives

correct directions on Earth.

Simplified Block Diagram of INS

SATELLITE NAVIGATION

IN THE

MODERN PERIOD

NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS)

sophisticated satellite navigation system

provides precise position, velocity and frequency estimates to

highly diverse world wide user community.

Space segment: 21 satellite constellation.

Provides user signals modulated by P (precisssion) code

and C/A (coarse acquisition) code from which its

position and velocity derived

Control segment:

Monitors satellite position

Uploads this information to the satellites for user reference

User segment (receiver)

Calculates its position with respect to the known

positions of the satellites in constellation.

THE GPS CONSTELLATION

CHIOCE OF GPS SIGNAL

•

FREQUENCY

A GPS signal has three different bits of information, a

pseudorandom code, ephemeris data and almanac

data.

satellite, gives the satellite health, orbital parameters

at the current date and time.

satellite should be at any time all through the day.

Every satellite transmits almanac data about the

orbital information for itself and all other satellites.

GPS SIGNAL FREQUENCIES

the L1 carrier

The P code (precision) of 10.23 MHz is modulated on both L1 and

L2 carriers both coherently derived from highly stable onboard

atomic clocks.

The C/A code is available to all users but the P code is available to

only authorized.

The GPS provides Precise Positioning Service (PPS), intended for

authorized users, employs the P(Y) code, which is transmitted on

both the L1 and L2 frequencies

Provides Standard Positioning Service (SPS), intended for civil

users, employs the C/A code, which is transmitted on only the L1

frequency.

GPS CONTROL STATION

NETWORK

Control Segment

• Control segment: consists of the master control

station (MCS) and five monitor stations.

Air Force base in Colorado Springs, CO.

– Monitors orbits, maintains Sattelite health

– Maintain GPS time

– Update navigation message

Canaveral, Ascension Island, Diego Garcia, and

Kwajalein.

GPS Space Segment

• 24+ satellites

• 6 orbital planes

• 55 degree inclination

• ~ 12 hour orbits

• 4 SVs (Satellites) per plane

• 26561 Km from earth’s center

• 10 year design life

• 2 tonne weight, 12m solar panel

• 4 Atomic clocks

Primary objective of GPS user (receiver) set is

measurements

provide the best estimate of user position,

velocity and system time .

Simulation of Satellite Orbit

computed in ECEF frame

CO-ORDINATE FRAMES

• Non rotating but translating with the Earth (ZI , ZE )

ie

iet

XI

Z axis : Directed north along the earth’s polar axis

XE YE

YI

Greenwich

ECEF ( Earth Centered Earth Fixed ) : Meridian 900

• Rigidly fixed to the Earth ( Rotating and Translating with the Earth ) Meridian

3/27/2019 27

The Keplerian Orbit of a Satellite in ECEF frame

Semi major Axis (a),

Eccentricity (e)

• The semi major axis is used to determine the

size of the orbit. The semi major axis is half

the distance along the long axis of the ellipse

around which the spacecraft travels. For

circular orbits, the semi major axis is simply

the radius of the circle made by the orbiting

satellite.

• The eccentricity is used to determine the

shape of the orbit. The eccentricity is the

ratio of the distance between the two foci

and the semi major axis. The eccentricity is

0 for a circle and 0 < e < 1 for an ellipse.

Inclination (i),

Longitude of the Ascending Node ( Ω )

• The inclination is used to determine the tilt of the orbit. The

inclination is the angle between the fundamental plane of the

coordinate system (the equatorial plane in an earth centered

system) and the orbital plane. An equatorial orbit has an

inclination of 0° or 180°, a polar orbit has an inclination of

90°.

• The longitude of the ascending node is used to determine

the angular orientation of the orbit relative to some

principal direction. The longitude of the ascending node is

the angle from the vernal equinox (a line drawn from earth

through the sun on the first day of Spring) to the ascending

node (the intersection of the orbital plane and the

fundamental plane as the spacecraft travels from the

Southern Hemisphere to the Northern Hemisphere).

Argument of Perigee (ω ),

True Anomaly ( f )

• The argument of perigee is used to determine the

orbital ellipse’s orientation within the orbital

plane. The argument of perigee is the angle,

along the orbital path, between the ascending

node and perigee (the point of the orbit closest to

earth).

• The true anomaly is used to determine the

spacecraft's location within the orbit. The true

anomaly is the angle, along the orbital path,

between perigee and the spacecraft's position

vector (from earth's center to the satellite)

measured in the direction of the spacecraft's

motion.

Orbital orientation in a space-

fixed coordinate system

f

This algorithm calculates the position of any GPS satellite

at any time and is fundamental to every position calculation.

Ephemeris Parameters

Chosen for description of orbit of satellite

Available from ephemeris information

transimitted to GPS receiver.

Strang G & Borre K:”Linear Algebra, Geodesey and GPS",

Wellesley-Cambridge Press, 1997.

Four satellites available from http://www.i4.auc.dk/borre/matlab

and using above equation

G Xu: “GPS Theory, Algorithms and Applications, Second

Edition”, Springer Verlag (2007)

R M Rogers: “Applied Mathematics in Integrated Navigation

System”, AIAA Publisher , Second Edition (2003)

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO

• GPS: 21+3 spare SATELLITES, 6 Planes,

55 deg inclination, a = 26,560 km,

e = 0-0.02, T = 1 day/2 orbits. (USA)

• GLONASS: 21 ACTIVE+3 SPARES, 3

Planes, (Russian)

64.8 deg inclination, a = 25,510 km,

e = 0-0.01, T = 8 days/17 orbits.

• Galileo: 30 Satellites, 3 Planes, (European

space agency)

56 deg inclination, a = 29,600 km,

e = 0.002, T = 10 days/17 orbits.

How Does GPS Work? 4

Schematic Diagram of SFV Navigation Using GPS Satellite Data

ERROR SOURCES

Ranging errors are grouped into

the six following main classes

• 1)Ephemeris data --Errors in the transmitted location

of the satellite including SA

• 2) Satellite clock --Errors in the transmitted clock,

including SA

• 3) Ionosphere --Errors in the corrections of pseudorange

caused by ionospheric effects

• 4) Troposphere--Errors in the corrections of

pseudorange caused by tropospheric effects

• 5) Multipath--Errors caused by reflected signals

entering the receiver antenna

• 6) Receiver--Errors in the receiver's measurement of

range caused by receiver clock error, thermal noise,

software accuracy.

The behavior of GPS satellite clock

• Each GPS satellite clock is monitored against GPS Time,

by an ensemble of atomic clocks at the Master Control

Station.

• The satellite clock bias and drift relative to GPS Time are

explicitly determined.

• The above determined clock behaviour is made available to

all GPS users via clock error coefficients in a polynomial

form broadcast in the navigation message.

• However, what is available to users is really a prediction of

the clock behaviour for some future time interval. Due to

random deviations even cesium and rubidium oscillators

are not entirely predictable. The satellite clock error are

accurate to about 20 nanoseconds is not precise for

accurate range measurement.

Selective Availability

accurate GPS signals. An artificial clock and ephemeris

errors were introduced into the GPS signals to

intentionally degrade performance both by satellite

clock and degrading satellite orbital information.

• The SA is the single largest source of C/A (coarse

acquision) code error. It introduces largest bias errors

in the Standard Positioning System accounting for most

of the 100 meter (95 percent) error in the SPS. The SA

was turned off on May 2, 2000 and is currently inactive.

Thus one can expect typical accuracies in the range 6-

12 meters. In this way, the accuracy of the single point

positioning is reduced from 100 meters to 15-25 meters.

Removal of the SA enhances the single point

positioning and also expands the application areas.

VARIATION OF ERROR DUE

TO SA

Satellite Clock Errors

• GPS uses atomic clocks (cesium and rubidium oscillators), which have

stabilities of about I part in 10E13 over a day. These satellite clock

errors affect both the C/A- and P-code users in the same way and

independent of satellite direction from stations and users who measure

same clock error.

• The satellite clock error is the difference between satellite clock time

and true GPS time which varies quadratically with time due the

satellite clock time offset, the frequency offset, and the frequency drift.

The satellite atomic clocks though precise cannot be synchronized with

the GPS time. An average error of 1-2 m for 12-hour updates is the

normal expectation.

• Some drift is allowed, monitored by ground control segment and

occasionally reset to be within one millisecond of GPS time. These

corrections are included by the satellite in the navigation message

transmitted to the user allowing the user to compute the pseudorange

in true GPS time which is common for all satellites.

Ionospheric Errors (Contd).

• Ionosphere extends over about 50 to 1000 km above earth.

• The code suffers delay and carrier phase an advance.

• This delay is proportional to total electron content along

signal path and inversely of the carrier frequency squared.

• The delay can be compensated by modeling, measurement,

or operation in a differential mode.

.

VARIATION OF ERROR

DUE TO IONOSPHERE

Tropospheric Errors

• Effect of Neutral atmosphere 0 to 16 km.

• Causes delay in code and carrier

observations.

• Variations in temperature, pressure, and

humidity all contribute to variations in the

speed of signals.

VARIATION OF ERROR

DUE TO TROPOSPHERE

Multipath Errors

• Multipath is interference due to local

reflections of the GPS signal by objects and

surfaces in the environment around the

receiver

• The use of choke rings, and materials that

absorb GPS signals can mitigate much of

such interference which must be carefully

designed to allow for differing reflections

from the continuously changing satellite

elevations and azimuths.

VARIATION OF ERROR

DUE TO MULTIPATH

Receiver Errors

• Errors in the receiver's measurement of

range caused by receiver clock, thermal

noise, software accuracy.

• For present day receiver should

contribute less than 0.5 ms error in bias

and less than 0.2 m in noise.

NECESSITY OF USING

KALMAN FILTER

• All the components of the errors described

above vary and with different time scales.

• There could be gaps and discontinuities in

the data received from the satellites.

• At a given time the data from various

satellites can be processed by using the

Least Squares Method. But it cannot handle

time varying systems as also errors with

ease.

• This is just an ideal setting for using

Kalman filter that can handle the situation

with felicity and naturalness in GPS studies!

1 Sigma error of pseudo range = 10 m without SA

RECAPITULATION AND CONCLUSION

•Evolution of navigation

•GPS Constelation

.Receiver position

THANK YOU FOR THE

PATIENT HEARING !

Other Contributors

Dr. M R Ananathasayanam

Dr. S Vathsal

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