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SEVESO

DISASTER
Prepared & Presented By:
Krushit Patel
Rishabh Roychaudhury
Introduction:
 Date: July 10, 1976
 Time:12:37 pm
 Location:20 kilometers (12 mi) north
of Milan in the Lombardy region of Italy
 Result: highest known exposure to 2,3,7,8-
tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) in
residential populations
Company & Management:
 Site operated by Industrie Chimiche
Meda Societa Azionara (ICMESA)
 Parent company: Givaudan, itself owned
by Hoffmann La Roche
Company Name Position
ICMESA H von Zwehl General Manager
C Barni Technical Manager
P Paoletti Production Manager

E Bergamaschini Factory Doctor

Givaudan G Waldvogel Managing Director


J Sambeth Technical Director

Dubendorf B Vaterlaus Director


Laboratories

Hoffman La Roche R Seheff Technical General


Manager
Affected:
Place Population (1976)
Seveso 17000
Meda 19000
Desio 33000
Cesano Maderno 34000
Barlassina 6000
Bovisio-Masciago 11000
Process
 The process which gave rise to the accident
was the production of 2,4,5-trichlorophenol
(TCP)
 Reaction carried out in 2 stages
• Stage 1:Alkaline hydrolysis of 1,2,4,5-
tetrachlorobenzene (TCB) using sodium
hydroxide in the presence of a solvent ethylene
glycol at a temperature of 170-180oC
• Stage 2: Sodium trichlorophenate was acidified
with HCl to TCP and purified by distillation
 During reaction small quantities of TCDD
formed as byproduct
Reactor
 13875 l vessel with an agitator and steam
jacket supplied with steam at 12 bar
 Controls on reactor were primitive
 No automatic control of heating
 Reactor provided with bursting disc set at
3.5 bar and venting direct to atmosphere
Properties of TCDD
 Stable Solid, Almost insoluble in water
 Resistant to destruction by incineration except
at very high temperatures
 One of the most toxic substances known
 Modes of Entry: Ingestion, Inhalation, Skin
Contact
 Symptoms: Chloracne
 Effects: Skin Burns rashes, damage to liver,
damage to kidney, damage to urinary system
and nervous system
Relative toxicity of some toxic
materials:
Substance Minimun lethal dose
(moles/kg)
Botulinus toxin 3.3 x 10-17
TCDD 3.1 x 10-9
Strychnine 1.5 x 10-6
Sodium cyanide 2.0 x 10-4
Overview of Incident
Unexpected rise in
Industrie Chimiche temperature and
Meda Societa pressure in 2,4,5
Azionara Factory trichlorophenol(TCP)
reactor

Release of toxic
clouds containing
Explosion TCP,NaOH, Ethylene
Glycol, Sodium
Trichlorophenate
Timeline of Events: