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Chapter 4

Petrology/geology=study of rocks
Rocks are the record
of our planet’s
 where rivers used to flow
 where huge inland seas were located
 what lived in these waters
 stories of glaciers and how an ice age
changed the planet
 ancient climates
 “How are rocks alike & different?”
 Look at marble and conglomerate
 Describe the two (include color and


What is a ROCK?
--start your study guide
 A MIXTURE of minerals (and
sometimes organic matter, like shells)
 Example: look at granite
– quartz (35%)
– mica (10%)
– feldspar & (hornblend) (55%)
– Note: ratio can vary a bit

Rocks are NOT elements or compounds.

What minerals make up other rocks?
(don’t memorize)
 Basalt —pyroxene, olivine, augite, feldspar
 Marble —dolomite or calcite
 Rock salt —halite
 Sandstone —quartz and feldspar
 Limestone —mostly calcite
 Diorite —feldspar, hornblende, mica, quartz
 Gabbro —feldspar, augite, olivine
 Rhyolite —quartz, feldspar, hornblende, mica
 Andesite —feldspar, hornblende, mica
How geologists classify and
identify rocks:
 1. Texture
 2. Composition
 3. Origin
This has been your Public
Service Announcement on
1. Texture (look at the
grains)—are the grains
large/small, smooth/pointy,  b. Grain shape
glassy, smooth, chalky, etc? – smooth and
rounded (like
 a. Grain size conglomerate)
(1) coarse-grained= – jagged (breccia)
can be seen without  c. Grain pattern
– wavy, swirling
(2) fine-grained= only pattern
seen with microscope
– flat layers
(3) no crystals/grains
because it formed too – rows of
quickly (smooth & multicolored
shiny like obsidian) bands (ex:
– random pattern
2. Mineral composition (what the
rock is made of)
 Ex: Limestone
– 95% calcite
– 5% aragonite
 scientists look at a very thin slice under
microscope and do tests
 acid test
– look for rocks that have calcite
 magnet test
– look for iron or nickel
Origin of the rock
(how & where did the rock FORM?)
 1. Igneous (intrusive &
extrusive—we’ll talk more
about the 2 types later)
– forms when molten
material (magma/lava)
cools and hardens
– can form at surface or
– Ex: granite, basalt,
pumice, obsidian
 2. Sedimentary (clastic, chemical & organic-
we’ll talk about the 3 types in more detail later)
– Usually form under water & have layers
– Particles called sediment (ex: pieces of
rock, mud, sand, shells and dust)
cemented and/or pressed together by
pressure above
– takes millions of years
– most rocks (3/4) on earth are sedimentary
– Ex of sedimentary rocks: sandstone,
shale, limestone
– Some sedimentary rock have fossils from
extinct animals/plants (paleontology).
 3. Metamorphic (foliated & nonfoliated
—we’ll discuss the 2 types later)
– due to extreme heat, pressure, and/or
chemical reactions DEEP underground
– over 10 km deep
– 100-800°C
– Ex of metamorphic rock: slate, schist,
and marble
 Which type of rock forms the fastest?
 >>volcanic (extrusive) igneous
 What is a ROCK?
 >>mixture of minerals (sometimes contains organic
 What forces on Earth cause rocks to form?
 >>heat, pressure
 What can rocks tell us about the Earth’s past?
 >>age, what lived, climate, forces
 List the 3 BASIC types of rocks.
 >>igneous, metamorphic, sedimentary
 What is the study of rocks called?
 >>petrology (type of geology)
 Which kinds of rock forms from material that
settles on the ocean floor?
 >>sedimentary
 Molten rock beneath Earth’s surface is
called _______.
 >>magma
 Which type of rock is MOST LIKELY to form
 >>sedimentary
 How do scientists classify rocks?
 >>according to the way they were
formed (origin), as well as their texture
and mineral composition