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ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS

T E N T H E D I T I O N
Biographical Characteristics
 Age – Q: Are older workers “better” or “worse”
than younger workers in terms of performance?

 Gender – Q: Any differences between male and


female workers?

 Marital Status – Q: So, should we hire only


married employees?? Why? Why not?
Ability
Physical Ability
The Ability-Job Fit

Ability-Job
Employee’s Fit Job’s Ability
Abilities Requirements
Learning

Learning
• Involves CHANGE
• Is relatively PERMANENT
• Is acquired through EXPERIENCE
Theories of Learning

Key Concepts
• Unconditioned stimulus: “meat”
• Unconditioned response: “saliva”
• Conditioned response: “saliva” after bell
Theories of Learning (cont’d)

Key Concepts
• B.F. Skinner – behavior is learned
• Reinforcement is key
Theories of Learning (cont’d)
Theories of Learning (cont’d)

Key Concepts
• Reinforcement is required to change behavior.
• Some rewards are more effective than others.
• The timing of reinforcement affects learning
speed and permanence.
Schedules of Reinforcement
Schedules of Reinforcement

Fixed-ratio
Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement
Intermittent Schedules of Reinforcement (cont’d)
OB MOD Organizational Applications
 Well Pay versus Sick Pay
– Reduce absenteeism by rewarding attendance, not
absence.
 Employee Discipline
– The use of punishment can be counter-productive.
 Developing Training Programs
– OB MOD methods improve training effectiveness.
 Self-management
– Reduces the need for external management control.
Summary
 Employee age seems to have NO relationship to
productivity.

 Ability: directly influences an employee’s level of


performance and satisfaction through the ability-job fit.
An effective selection process (including a job analysis) will
improve the fit. Promotion and transfer decisions *should*
reflect the abilities of the candidates.

 Learning
Positive reinforcement is a powerful tool for managers
Try to use reinforcement instead of punishment if you can
Your employees learn from your behavior - think about your
actions – you are a role model whether you realize it or not!