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ECE 3135

Electromagnetic Field Theory

Lecture :
Wave Equation
Phasors and Uniform Plane Wave
Solutions to Maxwell’s Equations
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Phasor Review
Converting Time-Domain to Frequency-Domain

X (t )  A Cos(2ft   )
Phase
Amplitude
Frequency

Linear Time-Invarient (LTI) System: They can never


excite frequency at their output which does not come
at their input.

~
X  Aexp ( j )
~
X  A 2
Phasor in Polar form
Phasor Review
Converting Time-Domain to Frequency-Domain
The Phasor form can be easily expressed in
Cartesian form.
Im
A
Y
~ ϕ
X  A Cos  jASin X Re

X Y
 Where do we use Polar form and where do
we use the Cartesian form ?

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Converting Phasor Back into Time -Domain

~
X  A exp ( j)

 ~
X( t )  Re Xexp ( j2ft )
 ReAexp (j)exp ( j2ft )
 ReA exp  j  2ft 
 A ReCos(2ft  )  jSin (2ft  )
X (t )  ACos(2ft   )
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Wave Equation
E field in Phasor and Time domain
Phasor Domain (PD) Time Domain (TD)
~ 
E ( x, y , z )  E ( x, y , z , t ) 
E x exp( j x ) xˆ E x Cos(2ft   x ) xˆ
 E y exp( j y ) yˆ  E y Cos(2ft   y ) yˆ
 E z exp( j z ) zˆ  E z Cos(2ft   z ) zˆ

 
To go back to Time Domain (TD)
  ~ 
E (r , t )  Re E (r ) exp( j 2ft )
Using these definition we will convert our Differential form
Maxwell equations into Phasor form
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Wave Equation
Maxwell Equations Differential form into Phasor Form
~ ~ ~ ~
  H  J  j2fD B  0

~ 
~ ~
  E   j2fB   D  ρv
We will do more simplifications

Simple, Source Free Medium (Outer Space)


We will rewrite the
-Linear (means you double the   above Equation and
H you double the B and so) D  E replace D and B with
-Homogeneous (same )  
-Isotropic (same in all directions) B  H their constitutive
-Source free (no charges present) relations.
Constitutive
Relations
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Wave Equation
Maxwell Equations ( Phasor Form) in a simple, source free media.
~ ~ ~ ~
  H  j2fE  0 (i.e J  0) H  0

~ 
~ ~
  E   j2fH   E  0 (source free)

~ 
~
  E   j2fH (Faraday’s Law)
Taking the curl of both sides:

~  Replacing
~
    E   j2 f(  H) ~ ~
  H  j2fE

~
 (2 f ) E
2
and K  2f  ( Rad / m)

~
K E2
K (wave-number) = 2/
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~ 
~ Using vector identity
(    E)  K E  0
2
This is known as Vector wave
Equation
~ 
~ 
~
((  E)   E)  K E  0
2 2


~
Here (  E)  0 for source free medium and

 2
 2
 2 you can call it divergence of
    2   2  2 gradient or Laplacian operator
x 2
y z
We finally get [ This is known as Helmholtz wave equation or

~ Scalar wave equation because we will have three
(  K )E  0
2 2
independent uncoupled differential equations as
E = 0 i.e these components are uncoupled ]
We will get the same result for magnetic field H i.e.

~
(  K )H  0
2 2
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We can write this

~
E 
( 2  K 2 ) ~

0
H
or
E
~

 x (x, y, z) 
~   0
 E y (x, y, z)   0  Give us six scalar
~    Wave equations.
 E (x, y, z)   0
( 2  K 2 ) ~    0
z

 H x (x, y, z)   
~   0
 H y (x, y, z)   
~   0
H 
 z (x, y,
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z) 

~ 
~
(  K )E  0
2 2
  2 
  V   0
 2  (2f ) LC  ~
2
  
  
 2 2 2 2

~  z   I   0
 2   2  K  E x  0
 x y z
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 Differential equation that governs voltage
and current propagating in
transmission line (Telegrapher’s Eq.)
 This physically means that a constant velocity wave is
propagating in every direction i.e. x, y, and z.
 Physically it means that imagine if I make
electromagnetic disturbance in 3D space, the waves
propagate in all directions at a constant velocity just like
if I throw a rock into a 3D surface of a pond, the ripple
is carried in all directions at a constant velocity.
 Solution to this differential equation depends upon
boundary conditions.
 Single most important solution to this equation is Plane
Wave. 10
Plane Wave
Plane Wave is one example to solutions of HWE. It is useful
solution for couple of reasons;
1. Mathematically simple equation.
2. In real life, how an antenna make a wave, you slash
current up and down which changes the E field and the
H field, couples them together and that causes an
electromagnetic disturbance to travel away from the
antenna. You can treat it around the antenna as a
perfect spherical wave. Once it travels far enough to a
receiving antenna the wave received is almost a plane
wave.

Tx Rx

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Plane Wave (uniform PW)
This one example to solutions of HWE. Form of the electric and
magnetic field that solve the HWE is the generic form i.e.
 
~
 
E( r )  E  eˆ exp j   Kk̂  r (V/m )
 
~
H( r ) 
E ˆ


h exp j   Kk̂  r

 (A/m )

Eo - Amplitude of E-field wave (V/m)


ê - Polarization
K - 2π/λ Wavenumber Zo or o – Intrinsic impedance
of medium (Ω)
(rad/m) 
ϕo – Phase (rad) r  xx̂  yŷ  zẑ (m)
ĥ - Direction of magnetic field
k - Direction of propagation of wave
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  ()

ê  ĥ  k̂ (Unit vect ors)

~
Example : For a given E field find
~
i. The accompanyi ng H field
ii. The  and direction of propagatio n.
~ 
E( r )  1105 4x̂  2ŷ  ẑ. exp j  0.01x̂  3ŷ  2ẑ.r̂  (V/m)

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 In free space (vacuum):

v p  c  3 10 m/s 8

Zo  120  377
( Electric ) field

( Magnetic ) field

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