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Concept of Feedback Control

2  Consider the generalized process shown in Figure 13. 1a.


 It has an output y, a potential disturbance d, and an available
manipulated variable m.

 The disturbance d (also known as load or process load)


changes in an unpredictable manner and our control
objective is to keep the value of the output y at desired levels.

Process Dynamics & Control


Concept of Feedback Control
3  A feedback control action takes the following steps:
1. Measures the value of the output (flow, pressure, liquid level,
temperature, composition) using the appropriate measuring
device. Let ym be the value indicated by the measuring
sensor.
2. Compares the indicated value to the desired value ysp (set
point) of the output. Let the deviation (error) be ε = ysp - ym.

Process Dynamics & Control


Concept of Feedback Control
4 3. The value of the deviation is supplied to the main controller.
The controller in turn changes the value of the manipulated
variable m in such a way as to reduce the magnitude of the
deviation. Usually, the controller does not affect the
manipulated variable directly but through another device
(usually a control valve), known as the final control element.
Figure 13.1b summarizes pictorially the foregoing three steps.

Process Dynamics & Control


Concept of Feedback Control
5  The system in Figure 13.1a is known as open loop, in contrast to
the feedback-controlled system of Figure 13.1b, which is
called closed loop.
 Also, when the value of d or m changes, the response of the
first is called open-loop response while that of the second is
the closed-loop response. The origin of the term closed-loop is
evident from Figure 13.1b.

Process Dynamics & Control


Example 13.1: Feedback Control
6 Systems
 The following represent some typical feedback control
systems which are often encountered in chemical
processes.
1. Flow control: Feedback systems shown in figure 13.2a, for
controlling the flow rate F at the desired value Fsp.

Process Dynamics & Control


Example 13.1: Feedback Control
7 Systems
2. Pressure control: The feedback system in Figure 13.2c
controls the pressure of the gases in the tank, at the desired
pressure Psp.

Process Dynamics & Control


Example 13.1: Feedback Control
8 Systems
3. Liquid-level control: Figure 13.2d and e show two feedback
systems used for the control of the liquid levels at the
bottom of a distillation column and Its condenser
accumulation tank.

Process Dynamics & Control


Example 13.1: Feedback Control
9 Systems
4. Temperature control: The system in Figure 13.2f controls the
temperature of the exiting hot stream at the desired value
Tsp.

Process Dynamics & Control


Example 13.1: Feedback Control
10 Systems
5. Composition control: Composition is the controlled variable
in the blending system of Figure 13.2g. The desired value is
csp.

Process Dynamics & Control


Feedback Control Systems
11
 To simplify the presentation of a feedback control system,
we will usually replace the diagrammatic details of a
controller mechanism with a simple circle carrying one of
the following characterizations:
1. FC: flow control
2. PC: pressure control
3. LC: liquid-level control
4. TC: temperature control
5. CC: composition control

Process Dynamics & Control


Feedback Control Systems
12
 Also, little squares with the characterizations LT, TT, PT, FT,
and CT are used to indicate level, temperature, pressure,
flow, and concentration measurement and transmission.
Figure 13.3b is equivalent to Figure 13.2d, respectively.

Process Dynamics & Control


Feedback Control Systems-
13 Hardware Components
 All the examples above indicate that the basic hardware
components of a feedback control loop are the following:
1. Process: the material equipment along with the physical or
chemical operations which take place (tanks, heat
exchangers, reactors, separators, etc.).
2. Measuring instruments or sensors: for example,
thermocouples (for temperature), bellows, or diaphragms
for pressure or liquid level), orifice plates (for flow), gas
chromatographs or various types of spectroscopic
analyzers (for composition), and so on.

Process Dynamics & Control


Feedback Control Systems-
14 Hardware Components
3. Transmission lines: used to carry the measurement signal
from the sensor to the controller and the control signal from
the controller to the final control element. These lines can
be either pneumatic (compressed air or liquid) or electrical.
4. Controller: also includes the function of the comparator.
This is the unit with logic that decides by how much to
change the value of the manipulated variable. It requires
the specification of the desired value (set point).

Process Dynamics & Control


Feedback Control Systems-
15 Hardware Components
5. Final control element: usually, a control valve or a variable-
speed metering pump. This is the device that receives the
control signal from the controller and implements it by
physically adjusting the value of the manipulated variable.

Each of the elements above should be viewed as a physical


system with an input and an output. Consequently, their
behavior can be described by a differential equation or
equivalently by a transfer function.

Process Dynamics & Control


Final Control Elements
16  The most common final control element is the pneumatic
valve.
 This is an air-operated valve which controls the flow
through an orifice by positioning appropriately a plug.
 The plug is attached at the end of a stem which is
supported on a diaphragm at the other end.

Process Dynamics & Control


Final Control Elements
 As the air pressure (controller output) above the diaphragm
17 increases, the stem moves down and consequently the
plug restricts the flow through the orifice. Such a valve is
known as an "air-to-close“ valve (Figure 13.9a).
 If the air supply above the diaphragm is lost, the
valve will "fail open" Since the spring would push the Stem
and the plug upward. There are pneumatic valves With
opposite actions, (i.e. " air-to-open" which 'fail closed")
(Figure 13.9b). The most commercial valves

Process Dynamics & Control


Final Control Elements
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 The most commercial valves move from fully open to fully
closed as the air pressure at the top of the
diaphragm changes from 3 to 15 psig.

Process Dynamics & Control


Final Control Elements
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Process Dynamics & Control