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Resistors

Capacitors
and Inductors
Resistor
• A (linear) resistor is an element for which
• v=iR
• where the constant R is a resistance.
• The equation is known as “Ohm’s Law.”
• The unit of resistance is ohm (Ω).
Resistor
(a) typical resistors (b) power resistor
(c) a 10 TΩ resistor (d) circuit symbol
Resistor

The resistance is determined by the resistivity of the


conductor as well as the geometry:

R=ρl/A
Resistor
For a resistor, the plot of current versus voltage
is a straight line:
Digital Multimeter 1

• DMM is a measuring instrument


• An ammeter measures current
• A voltmeter measures the potential
difference (voltage) between two
points
• An ohmmeter measures resistance
• A multimeter combines these
functions, and possibly some
additional ones as well, into a single
instrument
Digital Multimeter 2

• Voltmeter
– Parallel connection
• Ammeter
– Series connection
• Ohmmeter
– Without any power supplied
• Adjust range (start from highest
limit if you don’t know)
Ammeter Connection

• Break the circuit so that the ammeter can be connected in series


• All the current flowing in the circuit must pass through the ammeter
• An ammeter must have a very LOW input impedance
Voltmeter Connection

• The voltmeter is connected in parallel between two


points of circuit
• A voltmeter should have a very HIGH input impedance
Ohmmeter Connection

• An ohmmeter does not function with a circuit connected to a


power supply
• Must take it out of the circuit altogether and test it separately
Resistors in Series

Rtotal=R1+R2

Rtotal=1+1=2kΩ
Resistors in Parallel

R1  R2
Rtotal 
R1  R2
1 1 1
Rtotal    0.5k
11 2
Exercise 1

R2  R3
Rtotal  R1 
R2  R3
1 1 3
Rtotal  1    1.5k
11 2
Capacitors
A capacitor consists of a pair of
conductors separated by a
dielectric (insulator).

(ε indicates how penetrable a subtance is to an


electric field)

Electric charge is stored in the plates


– a capacitor can become “charged”

When a voltage exists across the conductors,


it provides the energy to move the charge
from the positive plate to the other plate.
Capacitors

Capacitance (C) is the ability of a material to store charge in the


form of separated charge or an electric field. It is the ratio of
charge stored to voltage difference between two plates.

Capacitance is measured in Farads (F)


Capacitors

+q: positive charge gain due to electrons lost


Direction of electron displacement

+q: negative charge gained due to electrons gained


Capacitors
The capacitor plate attached to the negative
terminal accepts electrons from the battery.

What happens when the light bulb is


initially connected in the circuit?

What happens if you replace the battery


with a piece of wire?
Capacitor V-I Characteristic
•The charge accumulated on capacitor plates is directly proportional to
voltage applied across the plates.

q V q = CV
where C is the constant of proportionality and is called capacitance (unit:
Farad).
•V-I characteristic of a capacitor is obtained by computing
d dq dv dv
[ q  CV ] C I (t )  C
dt dt dt dt
•Alternatively, integrating the above equation w.r.t. time, and rearranging
terms, we get
1 t
V (t ) 
C 
0
I ( )d
Energy storage

Work must be done by an external influence (e.g. a battery) to


separate charge between the plates in a capacitor. The charge is
stored in the capacitor until the external influence is removed and
the separated charge is given a path to travel and dissipate.

Work exerted to charge a capacitor is given by the equation:


Capacitor Symbols

Fixed Polarized Variable


capacitor capacitor capacitor
Capacitor Variations

Axial lead Radial lead

•Electrolytic
•Ceramic capacitors
–Aluminum, tantalum electrolytic
–very popular nonpolarized
–Tantalum electrolytic capacitor has a
capacitor
larger capacitance when compared to
–small, inexpensive, but poor aluminum electrolytic capacitor
temperature stability and poor
–Mostly polarized.
accuracy
–Greater capacitance but poor tolerance
–ceramic dielectric and a phenolic
when compared to nonelectrolytic
coating
capacitors.
–often used for bypass and coupling
–Bad temperature stability, high
applications
leakage, short lives
Capacitor Variations

•Mylar •Mica
–very popular, nonpolarized –extremely accurate, low leakage
–reliable, inexpensive, low current
leakage –constructed with alternate layers of
–poor temperature stability metal foil and mica insulation,
stacked and encapsulated
–small capacitance
–often used in high-frequency
circuits (i.e. RF circuits)
Variable Capacitors
•Devices that can be made to change
capacitance values with the twist of a
knob.
•Air-variable or trimmer forms
–Air-variable capacitor consists of two
sets of aluminum plates (stator and rotor)
that mesh together but do not touch.
Often used in frequently adjusted tuning
applications (i.e., tuning communication
receivers over a wide band of
frequencies).
–A trimmer capacitor is a smaller unit
that is designed for infrequent fine-tuning
adjustment (i.e., fine-tuning fixed-
frequency communications receivers,
crystal frequency adjustments, adjusting
filter characteristics)
Inductors

An inductor is a two terminal element


consisting of a winding of N turns capable
of storing energy in the form of a magnetic
field

Inductance (L) is a measure of the ability of


a device to store energy in the form of a
magnetic field. It is measured in Henries (H)
Inductors
Inductance in a cylindrical coil

μ0 = permeability of free space = 4π × 10−7 H/m


K = Nagaoka coefficient
N = number of turns
A = area of cross-section of the coil in m2
l = length of coil in m
Inductors
The magnetic field from an inductor can generate an induced
voltage, which can be used to drive current

While building the magnetic field, the inductor resists current flow
Inductors
•Inductor characteristic is governed by Faraday’s law:

V = voltage induced across an inductor


ʎ = magnetic flux (unit: Webers)

d d dI
V (t )  ( )  ( LI )  L
dt dt dt
Inductance of a Cylindrical Coil

•If number of turns per unit length


0 N  r2 2
is “n”, then N= n , so:
L
0 (n2 2 ) r 2
–  0= permeability of free space L  0 n2  r 2  0 n2 A
– N = number of turns in coil
–A = cross-sectional area of coil.
– = length of resistance-less wire
used in coil –If a magnetizable material forms
the core of coil, then permeability 
– r = radius of coil cross section. will be larger than 0.
Inductor Variations —I
Inductor Variations —II

•Tuning coil
–screw-like “magnetic field
•Antenna coil
blocker” that can be adjusted to
–contains an iron core that select the desired inductance value
magnifies magnetic field
–used in radio receivers to select a
effects
desired frequency.
–used to tune in ultra-
high-frequency signals, i.e.
RF signals
Inductor Variations —III

•Chokes •Toroidal coil


–general-purpose inductors –resembles a donut with a
that act to limit or suppress wire wrapping
fluctuating current.
–high inductance per
–some use a resistor-like color volume ratios, high quality
code to specify inductance factors, self-shielding, can
values. be operated at extremely
high frequencies
Inductor Symbols
Inductors

What happens to the light bulb when the switch is closed?

What happens to the light bulb when the switch is then opened?
Transformers
B •Let two inductors share the same
volume
•You can (should) give them an
iron core too
N1 turns

N2 turns
•The EMF’s can be calculated from
the flux
d  B1 d B E1 E2

E1     N1 N1 N 2
dt dt
d B2 dB
E2     N2
dt dt
•The magnetic flux must be
changing
•Only works for AC
What Transformers are Good For
•Their main purpose in life is to change the voltage
V1 = 120 V

A 120 V AC source is fed into a

N2 =5000
N1 =500

V2 = ?
transformer, with N1 = 500 turns on
the primary coil, and N2 = 5000 turns
on the secondary. What is the
voltage out of the transformer?
E1 E2
 •Voltage can increases, does that mean power
N1 N 2 increases?
•When you increase voltage, you decrease
120 V V2 current P  I V I1V1  I 2V2

500 5000 •In an ideal transformer, the product is
conserved
5000 120 V  Realistic
V2   1200 V transformers are
500
80-95% efficient
Transformers and Power Transmission

Generator Transmission House


500 V Line 100 kV Current
120 V
•Why transmit at 10 kV, instead of 500 V or 120 V?
•Transmission wires are long – they have a lot of
V1
resistance I2  I1
•By using a step up transformer, we increase the voltage V2
and decrease the current 2
 V1 
•Power lost for a resistor is: P = I 2rms R  I1rms R 
2 2

•You then step it down so you 
 2V
don’t kill the customer