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Department of Engineering Production & Mechanical


Design
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING ± MANSOURA UNIVERSITY
CHAPTER ONE
r 
ϲϓ Ϧ˰ϴϴϨϔϟ΍ϭ Ϧ˰ϴγΪϨϬϤϟ΍ ϦϴΑ ΐ˰σΎΨΘϟ΍ Δ˰ϐϟ Ϯϫ ϲγΪϨϬϟ΍ Ϣ˰γήϟ΍
ϊ˰ϧΎμϣ ϰϓϭ Ϣ˰˰ϴϤμΘϟ΍ ΐ˰ΗΎϜϣϭ Δ˰˰ϴγΪϨϬϟ΍ ΕΎ˰˰ϋϭήθϤϟ΍ ϊ˰ϗ΍Ϯϣ
ϲϓ ΕΎ˰˰ϤϴϤμΗ Δ˰ϳ΃ Ϧϋ ή˰˰ϴΒόΘϟ΍ Ϧ˰ϜϤϳ Ϫ˰˰Θτγ΍ϮΒϓ ˬΝΎ˰˰ΘϧϹ΍ εέϭϭ
ά˰˰ϴϔϨΘϠϟ ΕΎ˰ϤϴϠόΘϟ΍ ˯Ύ˰τϋ· Ϧ˰ϜϤϳϭ Δ˰˰ϴγΪϨϬϟ΍ ΕϻΎ˰˰ΠϤϟ΍ ϒ˰˰ϠΘΨϣ
.ϊ˰˰ϴϨμΘϟ΍ϭ

Ξ˰ΘϨϤϟ΍ ϭ΃ ΄˰˰θϨϤϟ΍ Ϣ˰˰ϴϤμΗ Ϯϫ αΪ˰ϨϬϤϠϟ ϲγΎγϷ΍ ϞϤόϟ΍ ϥΎϛ ϥ΍ϭ ‡


Ϣ˰˰ϴϤμΘϟ΍ ΍ά˰ϫ Ϧϋ ή˰˰ϴΒόΘϟ΍ ϥϮϜϳ ϥ΍ ϥΎ˰ϜϤΑ Δ˰˰ϴϤϫϷ΍ Ϧϣ Ϫ˰ϧΎϓ
Ϊ˰ϋ΍Ϯϗ ϲϫ Δ˰˰ϠϴγϮϟ΍ ϩά˰ϫϭ Ύ˰˰ϴϤϟΎϋ Ύ˰˰ϬϴϠϋ ϑέΎ˰όΘϣ Δ˰˰ϠϴγϮΑ
Δ˰˰ϣΪϘΘϤϟ΍ ϝϭΪ˰ϟ΍ ϊ˰ϴϤΟ ΕέΪ˰λ΃ Ϊ˰˰˰˰˰˰˰˰˰˰˰˰ϗϭ ϲγΪϨϬϟ΍ Ϣ˰γήϟ΍
ϰϓ Codes of Practice ΎϬΑ Δ˰λΎΨϟ΍ Δ˰ϴγΎϴϘϟ΍ Ϊ˰˰ϋ΍ϮϘϟ΍ Ύ˰˰ϴϤϠϋ
.ϲγΪϨϬϟ΍ Ϣγήϟ΍
 
r  
Drawing Board Δ˰˰ϴΒθΨϟ΍ Ϣ˰γήϟ΍ Δ˰˰ΣϮϟ ‡
Drawing Pencils ιΎ˰λήϟ΍ ϡϼ˰˰ϗϷ΍ ‡
Drawing Paper Ϣγήϟ΍ Δ˰˰ϗέϭ ‡
T-square T ϑήΣ ϞϜη ϰϠϋ Γήτδϣ ‡
Triangle ΕΎ˰˰˰ΜϠΜϤϟ΍ ‡
Compasses Box Ϟ˰˰Ο΍ήΒϟ΍ Δ˰˰ΒϠϋ ‡
Ruler αΎ˰˰˰ϴϘϟ΍ Γή˰˰τδϣ ‡
French Curves ΕΎ˰˰ϴϨΤϨϤϟ΍ Γή˰˰τδϣ ‡
Protractor Δ˰˰˰ϠϘϨϣ ‡
Eraser ΓΎ˰˰˰ΤϤϣ ‡
Sellotape ϖ˰˰μϠϟ΍ ϕέϭ ‡
r  
r  
r   N

ΔΣϮϠϟ ΔΒδϨϟΎΑ ΎλϮμΧϭ ΎϣΎϤΗ Δϔϴψϧ Ϣγήϟ΍ Ε΍ϭΩ΃ ϊϴϤΠΑ υΎϔΘΣϻ΍ ΐΠϳ ‡
.Ϣγήϟ΍ ϲϓ ˯ΪΒϟ΍ ϞΒϗ ϚϟΫ Ϧϣ Ϊϛ΄Θϟ΍ ΐΠϳϭ ΕΎΜϠΜϤϟ΍ϭ ήσΎδϤϟ΍ϭ ΐθΨϟ΍
ΔϔμΑ Ϧδϟ΍ ΩΎΣ ϪΑ υΎϔΘΣϻ΍ϭ ΔΒγΎϨϤϟ΍ ΔΟέΪϟ΍ ϭΫ ιΎλήϟ΍ ϢϠϗ έΎϴΘΧ΍ ΐΠϳ ‡
ΓήϤΘδϣ
ΓήτδϤϟ΍ ϰϠϋ ϢϠϘϟΎΑ ΕΎϤϴδϘΗ ϯήΠΗ ϻ ‡
ϢγήϠϟ Γ΍Ω΄ϛ ΔΟέΪϤϟ΍ αΎϴϘϟ΍ Γήτδϣ ϡΪΨΘδΗ ϻ ‡
ΕΎΜϠΜϤϟ΍ ίΎϜΗέϻ ϭ΃ ρϮτΨϟ΍ Ϣγήϟ ϻ΍ T ϑήΣ ΓήτδϤϟ΍ ΔϓΎΣ ϡΪΨΘδΗ ϻ ‡
Ϣγήϟ΍ ΔΣϮϟ ϰϠϋ ιΎλήϟ΍ ϢϠϘϟ΍ Ϧγ ϯήΒΗ ϻ ‡
ϊτϘϠϟ ϞϴϟΪϛ T ϑήΣ ΓήτδϤϟ΍ ϡΪΨΘδΗ ϭ΃ ϦϴϜδΑ Ϣγήϟ΍ Δϗέϭ ϊτϘΗϻ ‡
Ϣγήϟ΍ ΔΣϮϟ ϰϠϋ ΔΑϮϠτϣ ήϴϏ ΕΎϤϬϣ ϭ΃ ΓήϴΜϛ Ε΍ϭΩ΃ ϊπΗ ϻ ‡
0ϢϳήΨΘϟ΍ ϭ΃ βϴΑΎΑΪϟ΍ ωΰϧ ϞΜϣ ήΧ΃ ΐΒγ ϱϷ ϢϴδϘΘϟ΍ ϞΟήΑ Ϧγ ϡΪΨΘδΗ ϻ ‡
 
P 
A-series paper is used
F  S  (mm)]

‡ A0 841 x 1189
‡ A1 594 x 841
‡ A2 420 x 594
‡ A3 297 x 420
‡ A4 210 x 297

‡ An A0 sheet has an area of 1m2


‡ · The sides are in the proportion 2 : 1
‡ · Do not assume that the paper has been cut correctly ± opposite sides may
not be parallel, and corners may not be exactly 90 degrees

Y  

‡ · The drawing should have a border of about 10 mm


‡ · Space should be left for binding and hole-punching, if the drawing is to be
placed in a file
Ty   
P 
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Grade Hardness Use
Z| | 
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|  | |
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  |     |
|| |    |    | |
|| |    | | !|
|| | |
||  |  || !|
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=   

Express as ratio drawing unit : real world unit

Enlargement scales:
‡ 50:1 20:1 10:1
‡ 5:1 2:1
Full size scale
‡ 1:1
Reduction scales
‡ 1:2 1:5
‡ 1:10 1:20 1:50
‡ 1:100 1:200 1:500
‡ 1:1000 1:2000 1:5000

1. · Scales other than those above should only be used in exceptional


circumstances (ensure that sensible numbers are used, e.g. 1:2500, not
1:2384)
2. · Check that the scale on the printed drawing is correct ± this is very
important (measure it)
Ty  L
OBJECT LINES
‡ Object lines depict the visible edges of an object. The
edges you would see looking at the object with your
naked eyes. They shown as dark, solid lines.

HIDDEN LINES
‡ Hidden lines depict invisible edges inside an object. The
edges you would not see looking at the object with your
naked eyes. They are shown as dashed lines.

CENTER LINES
‡ Center lines depict the center of any cylindrical-shaped
object whether it be a cylinder or hole. They are shown as
a long line followed by a short line, followed by a long
line.
Ty  L
O   
 

 
 

 
 

 


 
 
   
  
  
   
   

  
 

  
 


YA=rC rEN=rONG
:ϰϟΎΘϟ΍ Ϧϣ Ϟϛ ΩΎόΑϷ΍ ΔΑΎΘϜϟ ϡΪ˰˰ΨΘδΗ ‡
Ex L Ω΍ΪΘϣϷ΍ ρϮτΧ 
m L ΩΎ˰˰˰˰όΑϷ΍ ρϮτΧ 
L
  ΓέΎηϹ΍ ρϮ˰τΧ 
A  h
 ϢϬγϷ΍ αϭ΅έ 
Symb  ίϮϣήϟ΍ϭ N ΕΎψΣϼϤϟ΍ 
L  

Ϧϋ ΔϠϣΎϛ ΕΎϧΎϴΑ ˯Ύτϋ΃ ΐΠϳ ϪϧΈϓ ςϗΎδϣ ϭ΃ ϢδΟ Ϣγέ ΪϨϋ ϰγΪϨϬϟ΍ Ϣγήϟ΍ ϰϓ
ϞΜϤΗ ϰΘϟ΍ ϡΎϗέϷ΍ Ϧϣ ΔϋϮϤΠϣ ΔΑΎΘϛ ϖϳήσ Ϧϋ ϚϟΫϭ ϢδΠϟ΍ ϭ΃ ςϘδϤϟ΍ ΍άϫ
ήΒΘόΗ ΓήμΘΨϣ ΕΎψΣϼϣϭ ΕΎϤϠϛ ΔΑΎΘϛ Ϛϟάϛϭ ΔϴϠΧ΍Ϊϟ΍ϭ ΔϴΟέΎΨϟ΍ ϢδΠϟ΍ ΩΎόΑ΍
ΕΎϤϠϜϟ΍ϭ .ΎϬΗ˯΍ήϗ ϞϬδΗ ΎϬϧ΍ ΎϤϛ ΕΎϣϮγήϟ΍ ϩάϫ Ϧϣ ΓΪ΋Ύϔϟ΍ ϡΎϤΗϹ ΔϴγΎγ΃
ϞϬδΗ ϰΘΣ ΔϘγΎϨΘϣϭ ΔΤο΍ϭ ϥϮϜΗ ϥ΍ ΪΑϻ ΕΎϣϮγήϟ΍ ΐΣΎμΗ ϰΘϟ΍ ϡΎϗέϷ΍ϭ
ΎϬϟΎϤόΘγϻ ΢ϠμΗ ϰΘϟ΍ ϡΎϗέϷ΍ϭ ϑϭήΤϠϟ ΝΫΎϤϧ ϥϮμΘΨϤϟ΍ ϊοϭ ΍άϟϭ .ΎϬΗ˯΍ήϗ
. ΕΎϣϮγήϟ΍ ϰϠϋ ΔΑΎΘϜϟ΍ ϰϓ
 
T
The table should be at the right bottom of the
drawing sheet
E
 
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A  
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m  b  hm   Th   


m   h   h  h h 
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Giesecke on the Web
GEOETRrCAL
CON=TRUCTrON=

Refer to the Book for Different


Geometrical Constructions.
CHAPTER TWO
= 

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= 

Sketching is one of the primary means of


graphic communication among
engineers. The ability to sketch is an
essential tool for all engineers as
sketching is used to convey original
ideas from the engineer to the designer
and from the designer to the drafter.
j      
1.Pictorial
2.Multiview
3.Diagrammatic
= 

Line types are the same for sketching as


for formal drawings. There are various
short cuts in sketching that can make
your life easier:- A freehand sketch is a
drawing in which all the proportions and
lengths are judged by eye and all lines
are drawn without the use of drawing
instruments the only tools being pencils,
eraser and paper.
= 

The ability to sketch is a skill which is


acquired through learning initially to
draw freehand squares circles, ellipses
and curves. Circular curves must be
drawn with the ball of the hand inside the
curve and straight lines must be drawn
by resting the weight of the hand on the
backs of the fingers as shown below
= 

Ê
   

In this type of projection the isometric view is


usually used. Isometric projection is based on the
principle that a cube representing the projection
axes will be rotated until its front face is 45 degree
to the frontal plane and then tipped forward to
downward at an angle of 35.27degree. The resulting
rotation displays all the faces equally.
= 

The viewing plane 1-2-3 is parallel to the


projection plane (image plane). This is
an isometric view. In true isometric
projection, the three planes make equal
angles of 120o amongst themselves.
Isometric sketches are constructed
along three axes, one vertical and the
other two at angles of 30o to the
horizontal going both right and left. All
lines are drawn true length and are
considered to be isometric lines.
= 

‘

  
    

There are several ways a circle can be


constructed in isometric projection.
   
Sketch an enclosing isometric square.
Sketch bisecting lines, at points of intersection of
this lines with the square sketch tangential arcs.
Sketch remaining parts of the ellipse.
= 

Ÿ 
  
Draw a circle and divide into equal number
of ordinates.
Draw isometric square.
Transfer all ordinates from 1 to 2.
Join the plotted points to form an isometric
circle
= 

The mentioned method may be adapted for


any irregular shape.
rEN=rONrNG
Dimensioning Practice (Terms)



A numeric value expressed in appropriate units
of measure and indicated on a drawing and in
other documents along with lines, symbols, and
notes to define the size or geometric
characteristic, or both, of a part or part feature.
Example: 12.875 (in.), 25 (mm), etc.
‘
 


A dimension, usually without tolerance used for


information only. It is considered auxiliary
information and does not govern Production or
inspection operations. A reference dimension
repeats a dimension or size already given or it
derived from other values shown on the drawing
or related drawing. Reference dimensions are
enclosed in parenthesis eg (23.50).
rEN=rONrNG
 
The origin from which the location or geometric
characteristics of a part are established. The
correct identification of datum on a component
and the related dimensioning can be related
directly to the methods of manufacturing e.g., CNC
co-coordinators for machining features, indicating
work holding features

— 
The general term applied to a physical portion of a
part, e.g. a surface, hole or slot.

  
A geometric feature of a part that is used to
establish a datum. Example: a point, line, surface,
hole, etc.
rEN=rONrNG
Ê  
The measured size of the feature
O    
The specified maximum and minimum limits of a feature.
j 

The total amount by which a specific dimension is permitted
to vary. The tolerance is the difference between the
maximum and minimum limits.
rEN=rONrNG
Ty    

 



‡ Parallel dimensioning consists of several
dimensions originating from one
projection line.
  ‘


 


‡ Superimposed running dimensioning
simplifies parallel dimensions in order to
reduce the space used on a drawing. In
general all other dimension lines are
broken. The dimension note can appear
above the dimension line or in-line with
the projection line
 
 



‡ Chains of dimension should only be
used if the function of the object won't be
affected by the accumulation of the
tolerances. (A tolerance is an indication
of the accuracy the product has to be
made to
Ty    

 Ÿ
 


‡ A combined dimension uses both chain
and parallel dimensioning.




Ÿ   
 
‡ Two sets of superimposed running
dimensions running at right angles can be
used with any features which need their
centre points defined, such as holes.




— 
‡ When dimensioning small features, placing
the dimension arrow between projection
lines may create a drawing which is difficult
to read. In order to clarify dimensions on
small features any of the above methods
can be used.
Ty    

‡ For Circles
‡ For Radii
‡ For Holes
CHAPTER THREE
r=OETRrC RAWrNG
Isometric drawing is another way of presenting
designs/drawings in three dimensions. The example opposite
has been drawn with a 30 degree set square. Designs are
always drawn at 30 degrees in isometric projection
r=OETRrC RAWrNG
O   ‘

1. Draw two basic 30 degree guidelines, one to the left and


one to the right, plus a vertical guideline in the centre of
the drawing. In this example three edges of the cube
have been drawn over the guidelines (they are slightly
darker).
2. Draw guidelines to help you start constructing the left
and right sides of the cube. Remember to use a 30
degree set square for the 'angled' lines.
3. Draw the two sides in place. They should be darker than
the faint guidelines.
4. Complete the top of the cube by projecting lines with the
30 degree set square as shown opposite.
5. Complete the top of the cube by projecting lines with the
30 degree set square as shown opposite.
r=OETRrC RAWrNG
r=OETRrC CrRCLE= AN
CLrN ER=
Drawing a basic isometric shape such as cube
can be difficult the first time you attempt to
draw it using a T-Square and 30 degree Set
Square. However, after a few attempts the
technique for drawing them can be mastered
quite easily. On the other hand - isometric
circles and cylinders are more difficult and
drawing them requires practice.
The sequence for drawing both is shown below:
r=OETRrC CrRCLE= AN
CLrN ER=
r=OETRrC CrRCLE= AN
CLrN ER=
1. Draw the original circle with a compass and enclose it in a
box. Add vertical and horizontal guidelines

2. Number the vertical lines (these are called 'ordinate lines')


as shown on the diagram opposite.
3. Draw the grid in isometric using a 30 degree set square,
being careful to use the same measurements as the
original grid which surrounds the circle.

4. To draw the circle in isometric projection simply measure


each distance down each vertical line on the normal grid
and transfer it to the isometric grid. On the diagrams
opposite - distance 'x' on guideline 3 has been transferred
to the isometric grid. This is repeated for each of the
guidelines 1,2, and 4.
5. Continue around the isometric circle 'plotting' transferring
distances from the original grid to the isometric grid - until
the circle is complete.
r=OETRrC CrRCLE= AN
CLrN ER=
PRO UCrNG A CLrN ER
=HAPE rN r=OETRrC
1. Having successfully drawn the
isometric circle developing it further
to change it into a cylinder is
relatively easy. Draw 30 degree
guidelines out from the isometric
circle as shown in the diagram.
2. Measure the distance representing
the 'thickness' of the cylinder along
each 30 degree guideline. Start
drawing a curve through each of the
points.
3. Draw the curve through each of the
points to produce the final cylinder
shade.
PRO UCrNG A CLrN ER
=HAPE rN r=OETRrC
r=OETRrC CUYE=
r=OETRrC CUYE EXERCr=E
Using a basic isometric cube with 25mm
sides or less, build up a shape similar to
the one seen below. Remember, using a
30 degree set square is vital for this
exercise. The only other lines are vertical
lines. If you feel confident with drawing in
isometric use blank paper otherwise use
isometric paper (seen below). This paper
has 30 degree lines and vertical lines
already printed on it (similar to graph
paper).
r=OETRrC CUYE
EXERCr=E
CHAPTER OUR
P  V
T

  
—   


=    V
‡ Not all 6 views have to be
shown in an orthographic
projection drawing.

‡ Details are repeated in the top


and bottom, right and left, and
the front and back views.
O
 P 
The aim of an engineering drawing is to
convey all the necessary information of
how to make the part to the manufacturing
department. For most parts, the
information cannot be conveyed in a
single view. Rather than using several
sheets of paper with different views of the
part, several views can be combined on a
single drawing using one of the two
available projection systems, first angle,
and third angle projection.
O
  

 O
  
    
 
  
     
          
   T    
           T 
       

    "
  "

 E v   
   

     v  T  
v           

  
P  O

‡ Shows the true size and shape of
the features of an object
‡ Provide certain information on
how the object is to be made.
W   

P  !
‡ An orthographic projection is
a multi-view drawing used to
show all of the features of an
object.

‡ Different views are set up in a


systematic way to mentally
connect them together.
O v
‡ Identify an orthographic projection.
‡ Select the best views to describe an
object.
‡ Identify objects from an
orthographic projection drawing.
‡ Identify the visualization rules of an
orthographic projection drawing.
V 
‡ Visualization is the ability to form
a mental picture of what an object
is going to look like when it¶s
completed.

‡ You must compare the top, front,


sides, back and bottom views to
see what shapes the objects have
in common.
V  R
‡ 1. Scan briefly all views shown.
‡ 2. Study the front view for shape
description.
‡ 3. Move from view to view to find
similar lines, surfaces, and shapes.
‡ 4. Study one feature at a time and
begin to put the shapes together to
form the 3 dimensional shape of the
object
R  =  
V
‡ 1. Only views that clearly describe the
object are used.
‡ 2. Views that show the least hidden lines
should be selected.
‡ 3. The object should be shown in it¶s
functioning position when possible.
‡ 4. The view that best describes the
object should be selected as the front
view.
P  =y 
O     v  
y     
     

  
O
  

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O
 P 
O
 P 
P    v
First angle projection
T P   V
‡ Must be able to visualize the
object as a whole and be able
to mentally put the views
together.
‡ Views are projected at right
angles (90 Deg) to each other.
‡ There are 6 different views
possible in an orthographic
projection.
= y
‡ The purpose of an orthographic
projection is to show an object in
it¶s true shape and size.

‡ The different views in an


orthographic projection are
projected at 90 degrees to each
other
= y
‡ Four rules should be considered
when selecting which views to
use.
‡ Visualization involves being able
to form a mental picture of what
the object is to look like.
‡ Use the 4 visualization rules to
help form a mental picture of the
object.
= y Q 
Ç What is an orthographic projection?
Ç What are the proper locations of all six views
that can be produced in an orthographic
projection?
Ç Out of the six possible views, why do we usually
only select 3?
Ç What 4 rules must you follow when selecting the
views for an orthographic projection?
Ç What is meant by visualization of an object?
Ç What 4 rules are used in the visualization
process?
CHAPTER rVE
=ECTrONrNG

  



The example shows a simple single
plane sectional view where object is
cut in half by the cutting plane. The
cutting plane is indicated on a
drawing using the line style used for
centre lines, but with a thick line
indicating the end of lines and any
change in the direction of the cutting
plane. The direction of the view is
indicated by arrows with a reference
letter. The example shows a
sectional view of the cutting plane A
- A.
=ECTrONrNG

   



It is possible for the
cutting plane to
change directions, to
minimise on the
number of sectional
views required to
capture the necessary
detail. The example
shows a pipe being
cut by two parallel
planes. The sketch
shows where the
object is cut.
=ECTrONrNG

Ä
!  
Half sections are
commonly used to
show both the internal
and outside view of
symmetrical objects
=ECTrONrNG
 
!  
It is common practice to section a part of an
object when only small areas need to be
sectioned to indicate the important details.
The figure shows a part sectional view to
indicate a through-hole in a plate. Notice that
the line indicating the end of the section is a
thin continuous line.
=ECTrONrNG
ÄÊO— Ê ʑjÊO
 
Half Views and Partial
views are used to simply
save space when half of,
or portion of a view is not
needed or is redundant.
=ECTrONrNG
ÊOʑ 
Ê           



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=ECTrONrNG
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=ECTrONrNG
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=ECTrONrNG
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=ECTrONrNG
FULL SECTIONS
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A   m m  
 y

=ECTrONrNG
HALF SECTIONS
H  S V    
 m  y  ymm  y
h
bj ( h  bh h    h m) Thy   
  h  b y 
 h 
 


 h bj     
=ECTrONrNG
OFFSET SECTIONS
O S V         x h h
C P  b
        
 h bj
=ECTrONrNG
REVOLVED VIEWS
‘ 
V     h  y  h  
 h h  h internm me  bj h
   m  y      Th
    h h h bj  h
 

 
  
     h h 
  ‘ 
V   b 
 h    
Th     
    m  h  


=ECTrONrNG
REVOLVED VIEWS
=ECTrONrNG
BROKEN OUT (LOCAL)
SECTIONS
Y   S  
h 
h 
I   y  m 
    y 
 
 y m
 
=ECTrONrNG
CONVENTIONAL BREAKS
C Y     y 
   y  bj
h h  h   h I   
 bj
 
 b  
 bj
HATCHrNG
On sections and sectional views solid
area should be hatched to indicate this
fact. Hatching is drawn with a thin
continuous line, equally spaced
(preferably about 4mm apart, though
never less than 1mm) and preferably at
an angle of 45 degrees
HATCHrNG
Hatching One, Two and Multi Objects
HATCHrNG
Hatching Thin Sections
Sometimes, it is difficult to
hatch very thin sections. To
emphasise solid wall the
walls can be filled in. This
should only be used when
the wall thickness size is
less than 1mm
HATCHrNG
Hatching Large
Sections
When hatching large
areas in order to aid
readability, the hatching
can be limited to the area
near the edges of the
part.
HATCHrNG
Which Sectional View?
Before proceeding, consider the diagrams below
and select the correct sectional view.
 
   
Drawing Conventions
Threads are drawn
with thin lines as
shown. When drawn
from end-on, a
threaded section is
indicated by a broken
circle drawn using a
thin line.
 
   

Frequently a threaded section


will need to be shown inside a
part. The two illustrations
demonstrate two methods of
drawing a threaded section.
Note the conventions. The
hidden detail is drawn as a
thin dashed line. The sectional
view uses both thick and thin
line with the hatching carrying
on to the very edges of the
object
CHAPTER =rX
=  C 
=  =  = 
=  =  = 
=  =  = 
=  =  = 
=  =  = 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
=  C 
CHAPTER =EVEN
AUTOCA
Starting AutoCAD
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CAD and Modelling h "ACA A h  
2" 
   AutoCAD Architectural Desktop 2
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AUTOCA
AUTOCA
Command Entry
Ty y h    h  y   
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AUTOCA
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AUTOCA
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AUTOCA

 
rtitene t em etdrm etinr r
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AUTOCA
 
Ê
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  rte: mnde ectte etidete tt 
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AUTOCA
    
L y I  y 
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m
h
h
m

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m

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m
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h h
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AUTOCA
—


Th     ! S y
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h x ACA (  File - Exit)
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