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Government Engineering College,

Gandhinagar

Topic:- Failure Analysis turbine


blades
Subject – Industrial corrosion ,testing , prevention and
control

Prepared By:
Lathiya Gaurav 150130121022
Sachapara Dhruvil 150130121044
Sojitra Kaushal 150130121051
Tejani Dhruvin 150130121056
Vadaliya Gaurav 150130121057
Introduction
Steam Turbine blades
• Critical component
• Converts pressure gradient to rotary motion of
steam
• Significant centrifugal forces in normal
operations
• Failures are related to fatigue , stress corrosion ,
cracking and corrosion fatigue
• Common Blade material: 12% chromium
martensitic steel
• X20Cr13
• Material properties:
• Excellent combination of Strength, toughness, corrosion
resistance, high inherent damping characteristics

• Service environment:
a. Contaminants like sodium , sulphur , vanadium , other halides
b. Hot corrosion
c. Unlike oxidations, can consume material unpredictabely rapid rate
• Case study of
• Low pressure stage
• Thermal power plant of 310MW
• After opening of turbine casing one blade found fractured
• Identify root of failure
Investigation
• Of fractured and virgin blade
• 67 hr service exposed
• Chemical analysis of blade material carried out
• Portion of failed blade fractured surface was cut
for metallography
• Etched with vilella reagent for 10s at room Temp.
• microstructure analysed using: optical microscope,
scanning electron microscope,
energy dispersive X-ray.

Figure 1 Grade 316 stainless steel shackle that has


experienced severe localised IGC.
Figure 1 Detached part of blade and found
within turbine.
• 3 distinct zone : A, B and C.
• Visual inspection shows A has clear blade leakage
which initiated the crack leading to fracture.
• Leakage spread slowly in zone A , then increased its speed in
Zone B,finally producing an accelerated detachment in zone C

Figure 2 Fractured surface of blade was left in rotor


Analysis of Zone A:
• Presence of foreign white compounds, where background as
same as undamaged blade.
• Foreign compound are O, Na and NaCl.
• Observed in EDS

Figure 5 Microstructure in zone A, Which


Figure 4 Area A in in Fractured Surface in Low
highlights the presence of foreign
magnification
compound.
Fig. 6 EDS results of region A

Fig. 7 EDS result of region B


Analysis of zone B
• This portion showed a ductile fractured surface.
• No particle present of similar nature present in zone A.
• EDX shows peaks characteristic of C, Cr and Fe.
• Zone c was last to break so not analysed due to lack of
interest.

Figure 8 Fracture surface analysis


of area B
• Chloride concentration of >20 microgram /sq.cm
• The pits observed contains chloride, which facilitates the
initiation of crevice attack.
• Steam produced during the cooling comes from condenser
tube can be possible source of Cl.
• Possible carriers are Ca and K.

Fig.9 Fracture characteristic of area B


Hardness
• Determined on three selected surfaces corresponding to three
different parts of blade.
• First is held at detached portion of blade on transverse surface
located at 15 mm from fractured surface.
• Hardness testing performed on same vane but in portion
remained in rotor.
• Other one performed on blade in good condition.
• Results are 460, 477, 451 BHN respectively.
Fig.10 cross sectional area corresponding to transversal blade portion
detached showing the location of hardness determination places.
Chemical Composition
A B

C
D
Figure 11 (A) typical microstructure of martensitic phase in annealed condition
(B) Portion of blade where crack would have initially propogates
(C) Microstructure of the surface blade leakage and detached
(D) microcrack observed in leading edge of fractured blade.
Conclusions
• Presence of pits on the tail of blade profile was caused by
corrosive atmosphere, mainly sodium and chloride salts.
• The speed at which the pits grow depends on the
concentration of these compounds and the exposure time in
this atmosphere
• Following the pits , residual stresses are created giving rise
to the initiation of intergranual type micro-cracks.
• Hardness value between 450 to 480 BHN doesn’t matches
with manufacturers standard of 270 to 300 BHN.
• This shows that some blades have not been properly
tempered.
Reference
• https://www.sciencedirect.net/publication/267339156artic
le/pii
• R.vishvanathan , Damage mechanism and life assessment
of high temperature components,1989,google scholar
• ASM handbook , vol.1
• D.R.H. jones , engineering materials 3, scopus.
Thank you…….