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By Shubham Jaiswal

Under the supervision of

Prof. Abhay kr. Singh
Brief overview
 Introduction (ozone, aerosols, water vapor)
 Formation of ozone
• (In the earth atmosphere)
• Depletion of ozone
 Why ozone is very important
 Control of thickness of ozone
 Measurement of ozone thickness
• The fundamental concept behind the measurement of
• Past development
 The MICROTOPS 2 (experimental)
 Atmospheric aerosols, water vapor and ozone play key role in
the study of the Earth's climate system, because they interact
with incoming as well as out-going solar radiation.

Moreover, aerosols influence the solar radiation both directly

and indirectly through their various sizes and thus alterd their
different optical and physical properties.

When aerosols are sufficiently large in size, they scatter and

absorb sun light, and when these particles are small, they act as
cloud condensation nuclei and aid in the formation of clouds .

Fig. 3-11


Ozone Concentration (ppm)

The Chapman
+ +



p 75



Demo video of depletion of ozone
 The DOBSON UNIT(DU) is a unit of measurement of
a columnar density of ozone in the earth’s atmosphere.
 One Dobson unit refers to a layer of gas that would be
10 micro meter thick under standard pressure and
 1DU = 2.69*10^16 ozone molecules per square
traditional Dobson instrument

Several attempts have been made to construct an inexpensive

portable sunphotometer for the purpose of total ozone column
In the past a major obstacle was the lack of stable, narrow band
UV filters with adequate out-of-band rejection.
 Recent advances in thin film deposition techniques2 made it
possible to produce filters of satisfactory quality.

TOPS correponds to “Total Ozone Portable Spectrometer’’

Some key points
 Ozone and aerosol particulates in atmosphere exert an essential
influence upon the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation falling onto
the Earth’s surface through the modulation of it intensity.

 Among them ozone component plays the main role in UV

radiation absorption.

 Total ozone content in a column of atmosphere is defined from

the ratio of direct solar UV radiation measured at two

 one with strong absorption and another with weak absorption of

radiation, within the spectral range of 290–320 nm. This method
is known as differential absorption technique.
Principle of operation
• The instrument is equipped with five (5) accurately aligned optical
collimators, capable of a full field view of 2.5°
Each channel is fitted with a narrow-band interference filter and a photodiode
suitable for the particular wavelength range.

Radiation captured by the collimator and bandpass filters radiate onto the
photodiodes, producing an electrical current that is proportional to the radiant
power intercepted by the photodiodes. These signals are first amplified and
then converted to a digital signal by a high resolution A/D converter.

The ozone layer, a concentration of 3-atom oxygen molecules in the

stratosphere, is essential to life on Earth. Short wavelengths of ultraviolet
radiation are much more readily absorbed by ozone than the longer
wavelengths in the same UV bandwidth. This means that the amount of ozone
between the observer and the Sun is proportional to the ratio of two
wavelengths of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation.
Basics of the instrument
•Ozone absorbs shorter wavelengths of solar ultraviolet radiation much more than longer

This means that the amount of ozone between the observer and the Sun is proportional to
the ratio of two wavelengths of the Sun’s ultraviolet radiation. MICROTOPS II uses that
relationship to derive the Total Ozone Column.

•Lambert-Beer law, which when applied to ozone absorption and Rayleigh scattering
by the atmosphere, gives the simple Equation
I = Ioexp(-αμΩ−mβP/Po)
α(λ) = (2.1349 x 10^19) exp (-0.14052 λ)
β(λ) = (16.407 - 0.085284 λ + 0.00011522 λ ²)
Io :- the intensity of the light of a particular wavelength before it passes through
the atmosphere,
I :- the intensity remaining after all processes attenuating the incident radiation
have occurred
Ω:- amount of ozone
α :- ozone absorption coefficient at that specific wavelength
μ:- ratio of the actual and vertical path lengths of the radiation through the ozone
Po is standard pressure = 1013.25 mB

m is a quantity known as the airmass,

which is defined as the ratio of the actual and vertical path lengths of the radiation
through the entire atmosphere to the detector.
expressions for m and μ is given by

m = sec Z − 0.0018167 ⋅ (sec Z − 1) − 0.002875 ⋅ ⋅(sec Z − 1)²

−0.0008083⋅ (sec Z − 1) ³ (solar zenith angle Z)
μ = 1/√( 1-v*sin²Z)
v= (R+r)²/(R+h )²
geometric factor for the height of the ozone layer
Calculation of total water vapor content
The water vapor measurement is based on a pair of radiometric measurements in
the IR band. The 940nm filter (10nm FWHM) is located in a strong water vapor
absorption band, while the 1020 nm filter (10nm FWHM) is affected only by
aerosol scattering.

For the 940nm channel (indexed with 1) located in the water vapor absorption band the
Bouguer- Lambert-Beer law takes the form

V1 is the ground based radiation at 940nm

V01 is the extraterrestrial radiation

τa1 is the aerosol scattering coefficient at 940nm
u is the vertical water vapor column thickness
m is air mass and k and b are constants numerically derived for the filter
For the 1020nm channel there is negligible water vapor absorption and the
equation takes the form.

The V01 for the instrument is found from an extrapolation to air mass zero of the
ln(V1 )+ τam = ln(V01 ) - k(um)^b
The k and b are already known therefore ln(V01) is the intercept from linear regression of
above equation versus mb.

For the water vapor calculation the aerosol scattering coefficient τa1 at 940nm is needed.
In MICROTOPS II the aerosol scattering coefficient τa2 at 1020nm is first measured based
on . The V02 is obtained from extrapolation of a Langley plot on a sunny day

From the radiation transfer model a relationship between τa1 and τa2 is found for a
standard atmosphere and because of a close proximity of the two bands it is assumed
constant for other conditions. For the filters used in MICROTOPS II the relationship is:
τa1 = 1.16 τa 2

vertical water vapor column is calculated as