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Name of group member:

2. NAMA RIKI (A1B217017)
3. SAHRIANA (A1B21709)

Internal Focus: Eksternal Focus:

Constractive Analysis Systematic Linguistic
Error analysis Functional Typology
Interlanguage Function-to-form-mapping
Morpheme Order Information Organization
Monitor Model
Universal Grammar

What is that?

is a linguistic system that used by the L2 learners and it is

influenced by the L2. Saville-Troike named interlanguage as
‘transfer’, meaning a transition of prior knowledge from L1 to L2,
as one of the processes that are involved in interlanguage
The Characteristics of Interlanguage :
1. Systematic
2. Dynamic
3. Variable
4. Reduced System

Factor Affecting Interlanguage:

1. Social Aspects
2. Discourse Aspects
3. Psycholonguistic Aspects
4. Linguistics Aspects
Stage in Interlanguage:
1. Initial State
2. Intermediate State
3. Final State
Constrative Analysis

Constrative Analysis (CA) was developed towards the end

of the 19th century and beginning of 20th century (fisiak 1981 : 1).
CA attempts to compare and describe differences nd similarties
between 2 language system by analysing one level at a time. In
accordance with the letter, CA perceives language acquisition as
being a habit formation phenomenon based on the stimulus-
response reinforcement process (Saville-Torike 2007 : 35)
CA also proude SLA with the notion of:
Positive VS Negative transfer

Fasilitating Interferences

When the same structure is Whe L1 structure is used in

appropiate in both language appropiately in the L2
Error Analysis (EA)

Which become distimguished from CA by it’s examination

of errors atributable to all possible sources, not just those resulting
from negative transfer of the native language.

Mistake VS Clear Cut Distinction of Error

Performance Notiecable deviation from the

native speaker grammar and they
reflect to learners languages
Procedure to analyze learners errors steps:
1. Collection of a sample of learner language
2. Identification of errors
3. Description of errors
4. Explanation of errors
5. Evaluation of errors

Errors are not always bad: useful items for determining how
learners process languages.

Interesting evidence about at least 3 learning

1. Transfer of rules from mothertongue
2. Generalization (and overgeneralization) of
L2 rules.
3. Redundancy reduction by omitting elements.

• Morpheme order studiesis a concept in language acquisition describing the

specific order in which all language learners acquire the grammatical
features of their first language.
• This concept is based on the observation that all children acquire their first
language in a fixed, universal order, regardless of the specific grammatical
structure of the language they learn.

 The monitor model, is a group of 1. The input hypothesis

five hypotheses of second- 2. The acquisition–learning
language acquisition developed by hypothesis
the linguist Stephen Krashen in
3. The monitor hypothesis
the 1970s and 1980s.
4. The natural order hypothesis
 Krashen originally formulated the
input hypothesis as just one of 5. The affective filter hypothesis.
the five hypotheses, but over time
the term has come to refer to the
five hypotheses as a group.

Universal grammar (UG) in linguistics, is the theory of the genetic component

of the language faculty, usually credited to Noam Chomsky. The basic
postulate of UG is that a certain set of structural rules are innate to humans,
independent of sensory experience.
Systematic Linguistics

is language analysis in a system of choices that are interrelated

and available to express meaning.

Function in early L1 acquisition:

 Instrumental
 Regulatory
 Interactional
 Personal
 Heuristic
 Imaginative
 Representational
Functional typology

Describe patterns of similarities and differences among languages.

The concept applies to all levels of linguistic

analysis. For example:
 In phonology
 In vocabularry
 In syintax
 In diacource
Function-to-form Mapping

Another functional approach which has been applied to the

description and analysis of interlanguage emphasizes Function-to-
form Mapping in the acquisitional sequence.

 I play soccer (a beginning learner)

 Yesterday i play soccer (an intermediate
 I played soccer (an advanced learner)
Information Organization

Information organization refers to a functional approach

which focuses on utterance structure , or “the way in which learners
put their words together” (Klein and Perdue 1993 :3).

Developmental levels

 Infinite Utterance Organization (IUO)

 Infinite Utterance Organization (IUO)
 Finite Utterance Organization (FUO)

Organizing principles

 Phrasal constraints
 Semantic constraints
 Pragmatic constraints