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Structures and Thermal

Control

Dr Andrew Ketsdever
MAE 5595
Lesson 12
Outline
• Structures and Mechanisms
– Introduction
– Structural Loads
• Static
• Dynamic
– Mechanics of Materials
– Material Selection
– Launch
– Structural Design
• Thermal Control
– Introduction
– Thermal Loads
– Design
• Passive
• Active
Structures and Mechanisms
Structures and Mechanisms
Introduction
• Structures
– Mechanically supports all other subsystems
• Provides load path and distribution
– Attaches spacecraft to the launch vehicle
• Isolation and vibration damping
– Provides for separation from the launch vehicle
– Provides shielding for components
• MMOD, Radiation, AO
– Satisfy all strength and stiffness requirements
– Primary structure
• Carries spacecraft’s major loads
– Secondary structure
• Support of wires, propellant feed lines, etc.
• Brackets
Structures and Mechanisms
Introduction
• Mechanisms
– Two applications
• High cycle
– Antenna gimbals
– Solar array drives
– Reaction wheels
• Low cycle
– Gravity gradient boom
– Solar array or antenna deployment
– Contamination cover removal
Structural Loads
• Static (constant with time)
– External
• Weight of supported components during integration
– Internal
• Pressurized tanks
• Mechanical preloads
• Thermoelastic loads
• Dynamic (time varying)
– External
• Transport to launch site
• Launch vehicle
• Acoustic loads
• Wind gusts
• Attitude control actuators
– Internal
• Thermal cycling
• Mechanism operation
Mechanics of Materials
• The 3 over-riding design criteria for space vehicle
structures are:
– Strength: ability to support a static load
– Stiffness (Rigidity): measure of flexibility (need to
avoid L/V natural frequencies)
– Stability (Buckling): resistance to collapse under
compression
• For simplicity, we will consider only spacecraft
that resemble beams
Strength
A
. ..
B C


A .. .
B C

A: Proportional Limit
B: Yield Point
(0.2% residual strain)
C: Ultimate Failure
0.002

Stress: Strain: Young’s Modulus:


L 
Load P  E
   L 
Area A

 lateral
Poisson’s Ratio:  
 axial
Stiffness
• Natural frequency is the frequency at which an unforced,
vibrating system will vibrate

1 k
fn 
2 m
where
k  stiffness( spring constant)
m  mass

• When vibrating freely, a single degree of freedom system will


always vibrate at the same frequency, regardless of
amplitude
Stiffness
• Without energy dissapation, harmonic motion will go on forever. Of
course, things do quit vibrating eventually.
• A damping force is one that resists vibration and dissipates energy,
normally through heat (friction).
• A viscous damping force is proportional to velocity; we typically
assume viscous damping to simplify analysis. Assuming a spring is
linear-elastic,
mx(t )  cx (t )  kx(t )  F (t )
where
m  mass
k  stiffness
c  damping factor
F (t )  externally applied force as a function of time
x(t ), x (t ), x(t )  position, velocity, accelerati on
Stability
• Theoretically, a linear-elastic column will buckle at a critical, or Euler
Buckling Load, Pcr, given by

 2 EI
Pcr  (SMAD, 11 - 49)
L2
where
L  effective length  2L (for beam)

• This equation applies only if the axial stress at buckling (Pcr/A) does
not exceed the materials proportional limit. Otherwise, replace E with
Et, the tangent modulus which is the slope of the stress/strain curve
at the operating stress level (the buckling stress in this case).
Cyclic Failure

• Fatigue failure is caused by repeated, cyclical


loading of a component at a load well below
ultimate or yield
It is difficult
 (or impossible)
to accurately
predict the
actual fatigue
limit for a
given part. The
Fatigue
limit
only sure way
is to test to
n-cycles
failure.
Mechanics of Materials
• Flexibility
– Measure of how much a structure deflects under a
load
• Stiffness (Rigidity)
– Inverse of flexibility
– Below Elastic Limit
• Material returns to initial length after stress removed
• Material becomes plastic above the elastic limit
• Material yields and has residual strain
• Materials
– Ductile
• Yields substantially without failing
– Brittle
• Yields without much deformation
Mechanics of Materials
Cantilever Beam in tension
Load P
P  
tension Area A
x
Cantilever Beam in bending
M=Px
P
Mc Tension
c Neutral axis b 
I Neutral axis

x where Compression

Moment
 b  bending stress ( N / m 2 )
b
3
M  moment ( Nm)
bh
Neutral axis I  c  distance from neutral axis ( m)
h
12 I  area moment of inertia (NOT mass moment
of inertia)
Mechanics of Materials

P1
Satellite P1 Mc
c  
P2 A I

Neutral axis
x

Tension

LV interface
Compression
Mechanics of Materials
 x
Shear Strain:  
G y
E
G
2(1   )
G = shear modulus


Structural Design
• Design Stress x Factor Safety < Allowable Stress
• Allowable Stress depends on
– Type of stress
– Material used Design Factors of Safety
Critical for Not Critical for
Personnel Safety Personnel Safety
Option Yield Ultimate Yield Ultimate
1) Ultimate test of a dedicated 1.1 1.4 1.0 1.25
qualification article

2) Proof test of all flight structures 1.1 1.4 1.1 1.25

3) Proof test of one flight unit of a 1.25 1.4 1.25 1.4


fleet

4) No structural test 1.6 2.25 1.6 2.0


SSAM, Table 12.5 SMAD, Table 11.54

(Source: DOD-HDBK-343, MIL-HDBK-340 and MSFC-HDBK-505A offer similar options.)


Material Selection
Performance Characteristics
 Stiffness (Young’s modulus and Cost, Schedule, and Risk
Poisson’s ratio)
 Rupture and yield strength (allowable  Availability
stresses)
 Cost of raw material
 Ductility (elongation)
 Cost of developing processes and tooling
 Fatigue resistance and fracture
toughness  Cost of processing (recurring)

 Mass density  Ease of controlling processes

 Corrosion resistance  Variability in key properties


 Creep resistance  Versatility of attachment options
 Wear or galling resistance
 Outgassing
 Thermal conductivity, absorptivity, and
emissivity
 Coefficient of thermal expansion
Material Selection
Material Advantages Disadvantages
Aluminum  High strength vs. weight  Relatively low strength vs. volume
 Ductile; tolerant of concentrated stresses  Low hardness
 Easy to machine  High coefficient of thermal expansion
 Low density; efficient in compression
Steel  High strength  Not efficient for stability (high density)
 Wide range of strength, hardness, and ductility  Most are hard to machine
obtained by treatment  Magnetic
Heat-resistant  High strength vs. volume  Not efficient for stability (high density)
alloy  Strength retained at high temperatures  Not as hard as some steels
 Ductile
Magnesium  Low density – very efficient for stability  Susceptible to corrosions
 Low strength vs. volume
Titanium  High strength vs. weight  Hard to machine
 Low coefficient of thermal expansion  Poor fracture toughness if solution treated and aged
Beryllium  High stiffness vs. density  Low ductility and fracture toughness
 Low short transverse properties
 Toxic
Composite  Can be tailored for high stiffness, high strength, and  Costly for low production volume; requires
extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion development program
 Low density  Strength depends on workmanship; usually requires
 Good in tension (e.g., pressurized tanks) individual proof testing
 Laminated composites are not as strong in
compression
 Brittle; can be hard to attach
Material Selection
Property 6061-T62 Al plate A286 Bar steel <2.499” Ti-6AI-4V Bar 2”
.25-2” (annealed)
Density (gm/cm3) 2.71 7.95 4.43

Young’s Modulus, E (103 69.0 201 110


MPa)
Poisson’s ratio, n 0.33 0.31 0.31

Allowable Tensile Ultimate 290 896 923


stress, Ftu (MPa)
Allowable compressive 240 590 903
yield stress, Fcy (MPa)
Allowable Shear Stress, Fsu 190 590 570
(MPa)
Thermal conductivity 150 12 7.3
(W/mK)
Coefficient of thermal 22.9 23.0 8.5
expansion, a, (10-6 m/m/ºC)
Corrosion resistance Good Excellent Excellent

Weld-ability Good Good Fair

Machinability Very Good Good Fair

Adapted from Sarafin, Spacecraft Structures and Mechanisms, 1998.


Launch Profile

1. Launch
2. S-IC Inboard Engine Cut Off
3. S-IC Outboard Engine Cut Off
4. S-II Ignition
5. S-II O/F Mixture Change (lower F)
6. S-II Shut Down
7. S-IVB Ignition (one J2 engine)
8. S-IVB Shut Down
Launch
• Axial and Lateral Loads
– Acceleration due to thrust
• Typically increases with time
due to launch vehicle mass
reduction
• Can be several to tens of g’s
– Vibration
• Random vibe
• Shock (burst)
– Liftoff
– Staging
– Acoustic
• Sound pressure waves
LV Interface: Shock Ring
• Needed a design to provide axial and
lateral isolation to satellite payloads
• Variation of axial shock ring
– Increases the path the shock has to
travel while providing parallel
damping
• All metallic load path
• Aluminum construction for light
payloads
– Titanium for larger payloads
• Easily manufactured and assembled
• Integrates in a stacked configuration
• Viscoelastic constrained layer damping
on outer and/or inner circumference
Flexible Body Dynamics
• Finite Element Method
– Used to predict structural
Payload M1
modes, natural
frequencies, and
responses to applied loads k1
– Models of the structure with
discrete degrees of Oxidizer M2
freedom
– Break a complex structure k2
into simple structures that
are easy to analyze
– Matrix math Fuel M3

F(t)
Launch Vehicle Loads
Power Spectral Density (PSD)

Mean Cumulative Power


Square PSD Mean-square Spectral
Accel. (g2) acceleration Density
(g2/Hz)

Frequency (Hz)
At a given frequency, the PSD is the slope of the function of cumulative mean square acceleration.
The area under the acceleration PSD curve is equal to the overall mean square acceleration. Thus, the
the overall root-mean-square value equals the square root of the area under the PSD curve.
Launch Vehicle Loads
Using a PSD curve
• Given a PSD for a LV, for example, we’d like to know the
acceleration experienced by our spacecraft
• Miles’ Equation tells us this
f nWx ( f n )
xrms 
4
where
..
xrms  the RMS response accelerati on (g' s)
f n  structure' s natural frequency (Hz)
Wx ( f n )  input accelerati on PSD at f n
  damping coefficien t
Structural Design
Secondary structures:
• appendage booms
Primary structures: • support trusses
• body structure • platforms
• launch vehicle adapter • solar panels
• antenna dishes

Tertiary structures:
• brackets
• electronics boxes
SSAM: Fig. 1.1

Structural components are categorized by the different types of


requirements, environments, and methods of verification that drive their
design
– Primary structures are usually designed to survive steady-state
accelerations and transient loading during launch and for stiffness
– Designs of secondary and tertiary structures tend to be driven by
stiffness, positional stability, and fatigue life
Structural Requirements
• Manufacture & Assembly (handling fixtures)
• Transport & Handling (cranes, dollies, transport to
launch site)
• Testing (vibration, acoustic)
• Pre-launch (stacking and preflight checks)
• Launch
– Steady state acceleration
– (typical max acceleration 6 g’s axial, 3 g’s lateral)
– Vibration and acoustic noise
– Shock from staging and separation
• Mission Operations (thrusters, attitude maneuvers)
– Very benign compared to launch and testing
• Reentry
Structures
Example: Thin-Walled Pressure Vessels
• Thin walled vessel defined as having an inner radius to wall
thickness of 10 or greater.

L
H

rinner
 10
t wall
Structures
Example: Cylindrical Pressure Vessels
dAH  t w dy
pressure directed
radially outward vessel section of length dy
x
with inner radius ri and
wall thickness tw
y
longitudinal stress
hoop stress circumferentially axially in walls, L
in walls, H

dAL   ro  ri    ri  t w   ri 


2 2

  2ri t w  t w2   2ri t w 

F x  0  2 H dAH   pAwall (effective )  F y  0   L dAL   pAend cap 


 2 H t w dy   p2ri dy    L 2ri t w   pri 2 
pri pr pri pr
 H    L  
tw t 2t w 2t
Structures
Example: Spherical Pressure Vessels
vessel section with inner
x radius ri and wall thickness tw

y
pressure directed
hoop stress spherically in radially outward
walls, S
dAS   ro  ri   2ri t w 
2

F y  0   S dAS   p Across section 


  S 2ri t w   pri 2 
pri pr
 S  
2t w 2t
Structure Subsystem
• How do you know the structure will meet
the requirements?
– Inspection
• Is it built the way it was designed?
• Are the right materials used?
– Analysis
• Finite element modeling
– Test and Evaluation
• Did the structure perform as designed?
Thermal Control Subsystem
Introduction
• Thermal Control Subsystem
– Maintain all spacecraft and payload
components within their required temperature
limits over the entire mission
• Operational Limits
• Survival Limits
• Gradient Limits
– Can be accomplished by active or passive
means
Operating
Temperature
Ranges
Spacecraft Thermal Environment
Spacecraft Thermal Environment
Spacecraft Thermal Environment

Solar Flux
qs = Gs = 1418 W/m2 @ winter solstice
Emitted
= 1326 W/m2 @ summer solstice

Qw

Albedo
qr = a = 30%  5%

Earth IR (Earthshine)
qI = 237  21 W/m2
(at Earth’s Surface)
Earth
Heat Transfer Methods
dT
• Conduction (Fourier’s Law) q  kA
dx
– Heat flow in a medium, where
generally solid q  power  energy/tim e (W)
k  thermal conductivi ty (W/mK)
A  area (m 2 )
T  temperatur e (K)
x  distance (m)

q  hAT
• Convection
q  power (W)
– Heat flow using stirring
h  convection coefficien t (W/mK)
medium, liquid or gas
– May use gravity to stir A  surface area (m 2 )
passively T  temp difference (Tsurface  Tflow )
Heat Transfer Methods

• Radiation (Stefan-Boltzman Law)


– Electromagnetic (EM) energy through free space (mostly in the
IR spectrum)
Q = σεAT4
where
σ = S – B constant = 5.67 x 10-8 (W/m2K4)
ε = emmissivity (typically in IR spectrum)
• Heat Flux
Q
q   T 4

A
Design Options
• Passive thermal control
– Coatings: paints, mirrors
– Insulation: multi-layer insulation (MLI) blankets
• Alternating layers of aluminized Mylar and thin net
• Often use Kapton for innermost / outermost layers
(stronger)
– Radiators: radiate waste heat to deep space
• Locate radiators on S/C side not exposed or only
partially exposed to Sun or Earth
– Phase Change Devices: paraffin absorbs heat as it
melts (latent heat of fusion)
• For use next to equipment with high, short bursts of
power
– Thermal Isolators: isolate propellant lines, etc
– Placement of components
Design Options
• Active thermal control
– Heaters and Thermostats
– Louvers: modulate a radiator
– Heat Pipes
• Liquid near hot component evaporates
• Moves to cold end of pipe and condenses
• Wicking device or capillary action brings liquid
back to hot end (active or passive)
• Hard to test in 1g
– Cold Plate: cooling fluid passes through plate
– Cryogenic systems: refrigerator (thermodynamic
cycle) or vented gas
– Attitude Maneuvers
TCS—Intro
Thermal-Optical Properties
•  = % energy emitted with Q Qr
respect to a perfect black
body. Usually averaged Qa
over IR range,IR
• a = absorptivity, % of Q
incident radiation absorbed
Usually averaged over the
solar range,aSOL r a   1
• r = reflectivity, % reflected.
r = reflectivity
•  = transmissivity, % a = absorptivity
transmitted.  = transmissivity
TCS—Intro
Thermal Analysis
• Gray body
– Assume a  over entire spectrum of interest. Most
real objects can be treated as gray bodies if we
restrict the wavelength under consideration, e.g. solar
spectrum (0.3 – 3.0 mm) or IR (3.0 – 30.0 mm).
– Thus, aSOL  SOL , aIR  IR
• S/C absorb most energy in the solar spectrum
and emit in the IR. So when we compare
materials, we’re interested in the ratio,
– aSOL /IR
Emissivity / Absorptivity vs Wavelength

Solar Band
IR Band

a or 

0
wavelength, 
Radiation Properties of Materials
Thermal Nodes and Networks

• Thermal Networks
– S/C thermal network is analogous to an electrical
network. Instead of electrical nodes with electrical
capacitance connected by electrical
resistors/conductors, we have thermal nodes with
thermal capacitance connected by thermal
resistors/conductors.
– Thus, we can use basic laws such as Ohm’s Law,
Kirchhoff’s Law to solve thermal networks.
• Thermal Nodes
– To conduct thermal analysis of a complex system we
break it into a set of finite subvolumes called nodes.
Types of Thermal Nodes
• Diffusion Nodes
– Most commonly used in a thermal network. They have finite
thermal mass. Represents normal material/components whose
temperature can change due to heat flow in/out of the node.
– Temperature of the node depends on nodal heat capacitance, net
heat flow into/out of the node, time.
– Example: Battery Box
• Arithmatic Nodes
– Zero thermal mass, don’t exist physically. Useful in constructing
thermal models. Can change temperature instantly. Can be used
for bolts, low mass insulators, coatings.
– Example: Thermal coating
• Boundary Nodes
– Infinite thermal mass, represent a source or sink. Temperature
can’t change no matter how much heat is added. T= constant.
– Example: Deep space.
• Number of nodes
– The more nodes you have in a network model, the potentially more
accurate (within the bounds of diminishing returns). But the more
nodes, the more computationally intensive the analysis.
TCS—Design
Network Example
Deep Space N4 N5
G3 G4 rad
Cond.
N3
G2 conduction
Physical Model
N2
G1 radiation
Sun
N1
TCS—Design
View Factors

• A view factor, F, is the fraction of energy leaving one


surface that strikes another surface.
• The sun is far enough away that it can be considered to
be a point source of energy. We can use the cosine law
to determine the fraction of energy hitting a surface.
• For LEO orbits, Earth is close enough that this
assumption doesn’t apply to Earth-source energy.
Instead, we must use view plane geometry to determine
the fraction of energy striking a surface. Luckily, we don’t
have to integrate over both surfaces. There are
analytical solutions for simple shapes (planes, spheres).
TCS Preliminary Design Process
TCS Preliminary Design Process
TCS—Design
SMAD Thermal Analysis
• Balance heat in and heat out
Qabsorbed Qemitted

→ Also must consider heat generated


internally, or heat energy converted to
other forms
QS  QR  QI  QW  QE  QC
     
absorbed internally emitted converted
generated
TCS—Design
Spacecraft Thermal Equilibrium Calculations

Qabsorbed Qemitted

Model spacecraft as a spherical satellite with planar solar arrays. Find


equations for equilibrium temperature of the solar arrays and the
spacecraft body.
TCS—Design
Solar Array Thermal Equilibrium Calculations
Qemitted  SA
Qabsorbed SA

Qabsorbed( SA)  Qemitted ( SA)  Qpower generated( SA)  0


- Absorbed energy
Albedo
Qabsorbed( SA)  QS ( SA)  QR ( SA)  QI ( SA)

QS ( SA)  a t GS At QI ( SA)   b G I Ab Q R ( SA)  a b G R Ab

Direct Earth IR GI  q I FP GR  aGS FP K a


Solar
FP  sin 2 r K a  0.664  0.521r  0.203r 2

sin r 
R
rad
R  H
TCS—Design
Solar Array Thermal Equilibrium Calculations

Qemitted  SA
Qabsorbed SA

- Emitted energy
Qemitted ( SA)   b AbTeq4 ( SA)   t At Teq4 ( SA)

- Generated energy (taken out of array)

Qpower generated( SA)  GS At


TCS—Design
Solar Array Thermal Equilibrium Calculations
Qemitted  SA
Qabsorbed SA

- Maximum temperature – all sources


1/ 4 1
a t G S   b G I  a b G R  G S   a t GS   b q I FP  a b aGS K a FP  GS  4
Tmax( SA)    
   b   t      b   t  

- Minimum temperature – only Earth IR

1/ 4 1/ 4
  b GI    q F 
Tmin( SA)     b I P 
  b   t    b   t  
TCS—Design
S/C Body Thermal Equilibrium Calculations
Qabsorbed S / C 
Qabsorbed( S / C )  Qdissipated( S / C )  Qemitted ( S / C )  0

- Maximum temperature Qemitted  S / C 

aG A  GI A  aGR A  QW  aG A  q I FS A  aaGS K a FS A  QW 


1/ 4 1/ 4

Tmax( S / C )  S C   S C 
 A   A 

- Minimum temperature

 G A  QW 
1/ 4
 q F A  QW 
1/ 4
FS 
1  cos r 
Tmin( S / C )  I   I S  where:
 A   A  2
TCS—Design
Thermal Equilibrium Example

Perform the preliminary thermal analysis for a spacecraft with


the characteristics given in the table. Calculate worst case hot
and cold temperatures. Identify any assumptions you make.

Cylindrical Spacecraft Shape 1 m radius


3 m height
Orbit Altitude 800 km
Electrical Energy Dissipation, Qw 200 watts
TCS—Design
Thermal Equilibrium Example
•Find the radius of an equivalent sphere with same surface area as the
cylinder: Acylinder  2rcyl2  2rcyl h  8 m2

Asphere  4rsphere
2
rsphere  2 m 2
,

 AC  rsphere
2
 2 m2

•Find r, Ka, and F:

 R 
  sin 1 
6378 km 
r  sin 1    62.69 deg  1.0942 rad
 R  H   6378  800 km 
K a  0.664  0.521r  0.203r 2  0.9910

1  cos r
F  0.2706
2
TCS—Design
Thermal Equilibrium Example
•Use the following table of parameters:
Parameter Hot Cold Source
Value Value
Gs 1418 1326 SMAD
qI 258 216 237  21 W/m2
QW 200 200 Given
a 0.3 0.3 Typical values for preliminary
thermal analysis
 0.8 0.8
a 0.35 0.25 SMAD
TCS—Design
Thermal Equilibrium Example
•Worst Case Hot will occur at local noon with the spacecraft directly
overhead

 A G a  AaaGS K a F  AqI F  QW 
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Tmax( S / C )  C S 
 A 

 Tmax( S / C )
         
 2 m 2 1418 W/m 2 0.3  8 m 2 0.30.35 1418 W/m 2 0.9910.2706  8 m 2 258 W/m 2 0.80.2706  200 W 

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   
8 m 2 5.67 10 8 W/m 2 0.8

 Tmax( S / C )  260.87 K  12.18 C


TCS—Design
Thermal Equilibrium Example
•Worst Case Cold will occur at local midnight.

 Aq F  QW 
 I
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
  
 8 m 2 216 W/m 2 0.80.2706  200 W 
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Tmin( S / C )
 A 
     
8 m 2 5.67 10 8 W/m 2 / K 4 0.8 

 Tmin( S / C )  186.36 K  86.79 C