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Menentukan/Find yp

1. Koefisien Tak Tentu


Undetermined Coefficients
2. Variasi Parameter
Variation of Parameters
3. Reduction Order
4. Cara Singkat
VARIASI PARAMETER
VARIATION OF PARAMETERS
Prinsip: mengubah konstanta c dengan parameter v.
CONTOH/EXAMPLES
Selesaikan PD/Find the solution of DE:
1. y’’ + y = sec x
2. 2y’’ + 18y = 6 tan (3t)
Persamaan Karakteristik/Characteristic Equation:
1. r2 + 1 = 0 ≈ r2 = -1 ≈ r1,2 = ±i
yh = c1cos x + c2sin x
2. r2 + 9 = 0 ≈ r2 = -9 ≈ r1,2 = ±3i
yh = c1cos 3t + c2sin 3t
2y’’ + 18y = 6 tan (3t)
y’’ + 9y = 3 tan (3t)
1. Mencari yh

pers kar: r + 9 = 0
2

Akar2: r = -9; r1,2 = ±3i


2

yh = c1cos 3t + c2sin 3t
Menentukan yp dengan variasi parameter
Find yp with variation of parameters
1. yp = v1cos x + v2sin x

2. yp = v1cos 3t + v2sin 3t
REDUCTION ORDER
Menggunakan/Using Operator D:
F(D)y = Q
1 1 1
𝑦𝑝 = 𝐹(𝐷)
Q ֞ 𝐷−𝑟1 𝐷−𝑟2
Q
Misalkan:
1
𝐷−𝑟2
Q=u ֞ 𝐷−r2 u=Q  PD orde 1
1
𝐷−𝑟1
u=𝑦𝑝 ֞ 𝐷−r1 𝑦𝑝 =u  PD orde 1
CARA SINGKAT
1
𝑦𝑝 = 𝐹(𝐷)
Q  tergantung/depend on F(D) & Q
1. Q = eax & F(a) ≠ 0  𝑦𝑝 = 𝐹(𝑎)
1
𝑒 𝑎𝑥
𝑥𝑟
2. Q = eax & F(a) = 0  𝑦𝑝 = 𝑟!
𝑒 𝑎𝑥

3. Q = sin (ax + b) & F(-a2) ≠ 0  𝑦𝑝 = 𝐹(−𝑎


1
2 ) sin(𝑎𝑥+𝑏)

4. Q = cos (ax + b) & F(-a2) ≠ 0  𝑦𝑝 = 𝐹(−𝑎


1
2 ) cos(𝑎𝑥+𝑏)

5. Q = sin (ax + b) & F(-a2) = 0  𝑦𝑝 = −2𝑎


𝑥
cos(𝑎𝑥+𝑏)

6. Q = cos (ax + b) & F(-a2) = 0  𝑦𝑝 = 2𝑎


𝑥
sin(𝑎𝑥+𝑏)
LANJUTAN/CONTINUED
𝑥𝑟
7. Q = cos ax atau Q = sin ax;  𝑦𝑝 = (cos 𝑎𝑥+𝑖
sin 𝑎𝑥)
𝑟! 2𝑎𝑖 𝑟
F(-a2) = 0 & ada akar kembar r  (bagian nyata & khayal)

8. Q = a0xn + a1xn-1 +... + an (polinomial)


 yp = (b0 + b1D + b2D2 +... + bnDn) (a0xn + a1xn-1 +... + an)

9. Q = eaxV(x)  𝑦𝑝 = 𝑒 𝑎𝑥 𝐹 𝐷+𝑎
1
𝑉(𝑥)

𝐹′ 𝐷
10. Q = xV(x)  𝑦𝑝 = 𝑥 1
𝐹 𝐷
𝑉 𝑥 −
𝐹 𝐷 2
𝑉(𝑥)