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GRAPHS OF OTHER

TRIG FUNCTIONS

f x   tan x f x   cot x

f x   sec x f x  cosec x


We are interested in the graph of y = f(x) = tan x

Start with a "t" chart and let's choose values from our unit
circle and find the tangent values. Tangent has a period
of  so it will repeat every . y
would mean there is
x y = tan x a vertical asymptote
 undefined here

2
  3  1.73
x
 




   
3 2 3 6 6 3 2

 1
4
3
   0.58
6 3
Let's choose more values. y = tan x
 
Since we went from  to we have one complete period
2 2
x y = tan x y

0 0
 3
6  0.58
3
x
      
1   
4 2 3 6 6 3 2


3  1.73
3

undefined would mean there is a
2
vertical asymptote here
Let's see what the graph would look like for y = tan x
for 3 complete periods.

The vertical lines


are not part of
the graph but are
the asymptotes.
If you use your
graphing
calculator it will
probably put
those in as well
as showing the
graph.
Transformations apply as usual. Let’s try one.
up 2
 
y  2  tan  x  

reflect about x-axis
4 
y  tan x right /4

 
y  2  tan  x  
 4
y   tan x  
y   tan  x  
 4
Since the period of tangent is , 
the period of tan x is: T

y  tan 2 x The period would be /2

y = tan x

y = tan 2x
What about the graph of y = f(x) = cot x?

This would be the reciprocal of tangent so let's take our


tangent values and "flip" them over.
y
x tan x y = cot x
 undefined
 0
2
 
1
 0.58
  3 x
3 3
     
  
 2 3 6

6 3 2
1 1
4
 
1
  3  1.73
6 3
Let's choose more values. y = cot x

x tan x y = cot x
y
0 0 undefined
 1
6 3  1.73
3

1 1 x
4   
     
 1 2 3 6 6 3 2
3  0.58
3 3 We need to see
 more than one
2 undefined 0 period to get a
good picture of
this.
Let's look at the tangent graph
y = cot x again to compare these.
y = tan x

Again the vertical lines are


not part of the graph but Notice vertical
are the asymptotes. asymptotes of one are
zeros of the other.
For the graph of y = f(x) = cosec x we'll take the
reciprocals of the sine values.
x sin x y = cosec x
y
0 0 undefined
 1
2
6 2 1

1 1
2
x
5 1
2 -1
6 2

When we graph these rather than plot points


after we see this, we'll use the sine graph as a
sketching aid and then get the cosecant graph.
choose more values y = f(x) = cosec x
x sin x y = cosec x When the sine
 0 undefined y
is 0 the
7 cosecant will
1
 2 have an
6 2 asymptote.
3
1 1 1
2
11 1
 2 
6 2  2 x
-1 6
2 0 undefined

We'll use the sine graph as the sketching aid.


Let's look over a few periods at the graph of y = cosec x

Let's add in the


graph of the sine
function so you
can see how if
you graph it, you
can then easily
use it to graph
the cosecant.

Again the vertical lines are not part of the graph but are where
the cosecant is undefined (which is where the sine was 0
although this graphing program seemed to draw them a little to
the right. They should cross the x-axis where the sine is 0)
For the graph of y = f(x) = sec x we'll take the
reciprocal of the cosine values.

x cos x y = sec x
0 1 1 y
 1
2
3 2 1
 undefined
0
2
 x
2  1 2 -1 6
3 2
Choose more values.
y = f(x) = sec x
x cos x y = sec x
 1 1
4 1
 2
y
3 2
3 1
0 undefined
2
5 1  x
2
3 2 -1 6

2 1 1

Again the cosine graph will help graph the secant graph.
Let's look over a few periods at the graph of y =sec x

Let's add in the graph of the cosine function so you can


see how if you graph it, you can then easily use it to
graph the secant.
Again the vertical lines are not part of the graph but are where
the secant is undefined (which is where the cosine was 0)
Acknowledgement

I wish to thank Shawna Haider from Salt Lake Community College, Utah
USA for her hard work in creating this PowerPoint.

www.slcc.edu

Shawna has kindly given permission for this resource to be downloaded


from www.mathxtc.com and for it to be modified to suit the Western
Australian Mathematics Curriculum.

Stephen Corcoran
Head of Mathematics
St Stephen’s School – Carramar
www.ststephens.wa.edu.au