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LTE Deep Concept

Expert Preparation

Part-1
Yoyok Dwi Parindra
yoyokdp@gmail.com
States in UTRAN, GERAN, E-UTRA
• The following transitions are supported:
LTE GSM_Connected
Handover E-UTRA Handover
CELL_DCH
RRC_CONNECTED
GPRS_
Packet_Transfer
CCO with optional NACC

CELL_FACH
CCO, Reselection
Connection Establishment/
Connection Release
Connection Establishment/
CELL_PCH Connection Release
URA_PCH Reselection

Connection Establishment/
Connection Release
CCO
E-UTRA GSM_Idle
UTRA_IDLE
RRC_IDLE GPRS_Packet_Idle
Reselection Reselection
EMM & ECM States Transitions
Power On

Release due to
Registration (Attach) Inactivity
• Allocate S-TMSI • Release RRC + S1 connection
• Allocate IP address + default bearer • Configure DRX for paging
• Authentication • eNB initiated (inactivity timer)
• Establish security context

EMM_Deregistered EMM_Registered EMM_Registered

ECM_Idle ECM_Connected ECM_Idle

Deregistration (Detach) New Traffic


Change PLMN
• Activate RRC + S1 connection
• Release S-TMSI
• Release IP addresses
• UE, MME or HSS initiated

Timeout of Periodic TA
Update

• Release S-TMSI
• Release IP addresses
Mobility Management States
•Definition of main EPS Mobility Management states
• EMM-DEREGISTERED
o The UE is not reachable by a MME.
o UE context can still be stored in the UE and MME
• EMM-REGISTERED
– UE enters to EMM-Registered with Attach or Tracking Area Update procedure
– The UE location is known with accuracy of the tracking area list
– UE has at least one active PDN connection
– After detach procedure the state is changed to EMM-DEREGISTERED

EMM states in UE EMM states in MME


Detach Detach
Attach reject Attach reject
TAU Reject TAU Reject
All Bearer Deactivated All Bearer Deactivated

EMM-DEREGISTERED EMM-REGISTERED EMM-DEREGISTERED EMM-REGISTERED

Attach accept
Attach accept TAU Accept
Connection Management States
•Definition of EPS Connection Management states
• ECM-IDLE
o No NAS signaling connection between UE and network exists.
o In the EMM-REGISTERED and ECM-IDLE state, the UE shall perform TAU, Periodic TAU, Service Request, Answer to paging form
MME with Service UE and MME enter the ECM-CONNECTED state when signaling connection is established.
• ECM-CONNECTED
o UE location is known in the MME with an accuracy of a serving eNodeB.
o There exists a signaling connection between the UE and the MME.
o The S1 release procedure changes the state at both UE and MME from ECM-CONNECTED to ECM-IDLE.

ECM states in UE ECM states in MME


RRC Released S1 Released

ECM-IDLE ECM-CONNECTED ECM-IDLE ECM-CONNECTED

RRC Established S1 Established


Cell Search (1/2)
Remember?
What are all the steps and the physical
channels involved ?
1. PSS Primary Synchronization Signal
(Time-slot & Frequency synchronization
+ Physical cell id (0,1,2) )

2. SSS Secondary Synchronization Signal


(Frame synchronization
+ Physical Cell id group (1..168) )

3. DL Reference Signals
(Channel estimation & measurements
UE

eNodeB
4. PBCH – Physical Broadcast Channel

(MIB – DL system bandwidth, PHICH configuration)


MIB = Master Information Block
PHICH = Physical HARQ Indicator Channel
Cell Search (2/2)
5. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel

(How many OFDM symbols (1,2,3) in the


beginning of the sub-frame are for PDCCH)

6. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel


(Resource allocation for PDSCH )

7. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


(SIBs: Cell global ID, parameters for cell selection UE
/ reselection, … )
eNodeB

→ CELL SELECTION & RESELECTION


SIB: System Information Block
Random Access (1/2)
8. PRACH preamble (A)

(A –1st random preamble*)

.
.
.
8. PRACH preamble (C)

(C –3rd random preamble)


UE
eNodeB
Challenge:
Several UEs may send the same preamble. How to solve the
collision ?
Solution:
→ contention resolution

* 64 Random Access Preamble Signatures available per Cell


Random Access (2/2)
response to RACH Preamble on PDSCH

9. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel


(How many OFDM symbols (1,2,3) in the
beginning of the sub-frame are for PDCCH)

10. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel

(Resource allocation for PDSCH)

11. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel

(Random Access response: ID of the received UE


preamble, C-RNTI)
eNodeB

C-RNTI: Cell Radio Network Temporary Identity


Contention Resolution for the Initial Access
several UE with same
RACH Preamble Signature
 getting same UL grant
 collision with RRC 8. PRACH Preamble
Connection Request

11. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel


(Random Access response: ID of received preamble,
UL resources for TX*, C-RNTI)

12. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel

(RRC: RRC Connection Request, *C-RNTI,


TMSI or random number)
UE

eNodeB
13. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
(Contention Resolution, C-RNTI & TMSI or All other UEs not receiving correct
random number) answer (TMSI)
TMSI = Temporary Mobile Subscriber
Identity
 restart Random Access (8)
* UL grant  PUSCH resources
What are the Next Steps?
 The random access procedure is successfully finished
 Next steps:
- RRC Connection Establishment
- Registration
- UE-CN signaling (Attach)
 Higher layer signaling -> not shown here

eNodeB

Now I am connected so I can


download the web page from the
Internet. www.fastconn.org
UE
DL Transmission
1. DL Reference signals  Channel Estimate / CQI

2. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH) Note:


CQI along with
(CQI based on DL reference signals measurements)
data 
3. PCFICH Physical Control Format Indicator Channel PUSCH

(How many symbols (1,2,3) in the beginning of


the sub-frame are for PDCCH)

4. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel


(DL assignment for PDSCH: Modulation & coding,
resource blocks*)

5. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel UE


(user data  initial transmission)
eNodeB
6. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH)

CQI = Channel Quality Indicator (ACK/ NACK for HARQ)


ACK = Acknowledgment
NACK = Negative ACK
HARQ = Hybrid Automatic
7. PDSCH Physical Downlink Shared Channel
Repeat Request
(user data → eventual re-transmission)
* Physical Resource Allocation
UL Transmission
1. PUCCH Physical Uplink Control Channel (or PUSCH)

(UL scheduling request*)


2. UL Sounding Reference Signal SRS
(used by Node-B for channel dependent scheduling)

3. UL Demodulation Reference Signal

(UL channel estimation, demodulation → like DPCCH in UMTS)

4. PDCCH Physical Downlink Control Channel


(UL grant – capacity allocation)
5. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel
UE
(user data → initial transmission)
eNodeB 6. PHlCH Physical HARQ Indicator Channel

(ACK/ NACK for HARQ)


DPCCH = Dedicate Physical
Control Channel
ACK = Acknowledgment 7. PUSCH Physical Uplink Shared Channel
NACK = Negative ACK
HARQ = Hybrid Automatic (user data → eventual re-transmission)
Repeat Request

* scheduling request only needed for applications with QoS like best effort
Idle Mode Mobility
Idle Mode – LTE Overview
Intra LTE Cell Reselection

Abs Priority : 6 LTE TDD 2300 MHz 1st Carrier

qRxlevmeas < qRxlevmin+ sNonIntrsearch

qRxLevMeas (ServingCell) < threshServLow


qRxlevmeas (NonServingCell) > qRxlevminInterF + interFrqThrL
interTResEut

Abs Priority : 5 LTE TDD 2300 MHz 2nd Carrier

qRxlevmeas < qRxlevmin+ sNonIntrsearch


qRxlevmeas (NonServingCell) > qRxlevminInterF + interFrqThrH
interTResEut

Abs Priority : 4 LTE FDD 850 MHz (2443)

LTE Cell Reselection to Lower Priority LTE Frequency


LTE Cell Reselection to Higher Priority LTE Frequency * UE Preferred camping on LTE 1st Carrier
Idle Mode
• Cell Selection & Reselection

a dBm b dBm ddBm e dBm


When RSRP < -106 dBm UE
When RSRP < -62 dBm UE starts to measure on LTE
starts to measure intra-freq (InterFrequency Neighbour)
neighbours
interFrqThrL interFrqThrL
(FDD) (TDD)

sIntrasearch sNonIntrsearch threshSrvLow


qrxlevmin (Used by Serving Cell)
qrxlevmininterF (Used By Neigh Cell)

Reselection to LTE Inter cell will happen:


Reselection to other intra LTE cell will happen:
1. When serving is below -ddBm AND
1. When neighbor is 3dB better than serving
LTE neighbour’s RSRP is better than
2. For a time
-c dBm
LNCEL:tReselEutr = 1s
2. For a time
3. AND more than 1 s has elapsed since the
IRFIM:intertResEut = 1s
UE camped in the currrent cell
3. AND more than 1 s has elapsed
since the UE camped in the current
cell
Connected Mode Mobility
Connected Mode – LTE Overview

EarfcnDl : 39050 TDD TDD TDD

EarfcnDl : 39200 TDD TDD TDD

EarfcnDl : 2443 FDD FDD FDD FDD FDD

Intra Cell Handover

Inter Frequency Handover (IFHO)


Connected Mode
• Intra and Inter-frequency Handovers
Trigger: RSRP below Thresholdx

Threshold1 Threshold2InterFreq Threshold3 Threshold3InterFreq Threshold4


a dBm b dBm c dBm d dBm e dBm

Only Serving Cell UE measure intra UE measure inter


Measurement Frequency Frequency UE perform HO to RRC Release
UE perform HO
Neighbors Neighbors inter Freq with Redirect
Neighbor
Neighbor

UE stops to
measure inter
Frequency
Neighbors
f dBm h dBm
Threshold3aInterFreq
Threshold2a

Trigger: RSRP above Thresholdxa

Confidential
LTE RRM: Power Control (1/6)
Improve cell edge behaviour, reduce inter-cell interference & power consumption

•Downlink:
– There is no adaptive or dynamic power control in DL but semi-static power setting

– eNodeB gives flat power spectral density (dBm/PRB) for the scheduled resources:
• The power for all the PRBs is the same
• If there are PRBs not scheduled that power is not used but the power of the remaining
scheduled PRBs doesn’t change:
– Total Tx power is max. when all PRBs are scheduled. If only 1/2 of the PRBs are
scheduled the Tx power is 1/2 of the Tx power max ( i.e. Tx power max -3dB)

– Semi-static: PDSCH power can be adjusted via O&M parameters


• Cell Power Reduction level CELL_PWR_RED [0...10] dB attenuation in 0.1 dB steps
Power Control (2/6) Downlink Power Boosting for Control Channels

• Offsets determine power shifts for subcarriers which carry PCFICH/PHICH or cell-specific Reference Signal (and
PRS)

Benefits:
• Better PCFICH detection avoids throughput
degradation due to lost subframes
• Higher reliability of PHICH avoids unnecessary
retransmissions causing capacity degradation and
additional UE power consumption
• Better channel estimation avoids throughput
degradation and improves HO performance
Cons:
• Small degradation on PDSCH subcarriers: Subcarrier
power boosting only allowed if the excess power is
withdrawn from the remaining subcarriers

Example of Reference Signals power


boosting
Power Control (4/6)
Improve cell edge behaviour, reduce inter-cell interference and power consumption

Uplink:
• UL PC is a mix of Open Loop Power Control & Closed Loop Power Control:

PPUSCH (i)  min{ PCMAX ,10 log 10 (M PUSCH (i))  P0 _ PUSCH ( j )   ( j )  PL  TF (i)  f (i)}[dBm]

• Closed Loop PC component f(i): Makes use of feedback from the eNB. Feedback are TCP commands send via PDCCH to instruct the
UE to increase or decrease its Tx power

• UL Power control is Slow power control:


2) SINR measurment
– No need for fast power control as in 3G: if UE Tx power 4) TX power level
was high it incremented the co-channel for other UEs. 3) Setting new power offset
adjustment with the new
– In LTE all UEs resources are orthogonal in frequency & offset
time 1) Initial TX power level

TPC: Transmit Power Control


Power Control (5/6)
Uplink (cont.):
• UL PC is a mix of Open Loop Power Control & Closed Loop Power Control:

PPUSCH (i)  min{ PCMAX ,10 log 10 (M PUSCH (i))  P0 _ PUSCH ( j )   ( j )  PL  TF (i)  f (i)}[dBm]

• PCMAX: max. UE Tx power according to UE power class; e.g. 23dBm for class 3
• MPUSCH: # allocated PRBs. The UE Tx Power is increased proportionally to the # of allocated RBs. Remaining terms of the formula
are per RB
• P0_PUSCH: eNB received power per RB when assuming path loss 0 dB. Depends on α
• α: Path loss compensation factor. Three values:
– α= 0, no compensation of path loss
– α= 1, full compensation of path loss (conventional compensation)
– α ≠ { 0 ,1 } , fractional compensation
• PL: DL Path loss calculated by the UE
• Delta_TF: increases the UE Tx power to achieve the required SINR when transmitting a large number of bits per RE. It links the UE
Tx power to the MCS.
Conventional & Fractional Power Control (6/6)
• Conventional PC schemes:
• Attempt to maintain a constant SINR at the receiver
• UE increases the Tx power to fully compensate for increases in the path loss
– Fractional PC schemes:
• Allow the received SINR to decrease as the path loss increases.
• UE Tx power increases at a reduced rate as the path loss increases. Increases in path loss are only partially
compensated.
• [+]: Improve air interface efficiency & increase average cell throughputs by reducing Intercell interference
– 3GPP specifies fractional power control for the PUSCH with the option to disable it & revert to conventional based
on α

UL UL
SINR SINR
Fractional Power Control: α
≠ { 0 ,1}
Conventional Power Control: α=1 UE Tx UE Tx If Path Loss increases by 10
If Path Loss increases by 10 dB Power Power dB the UE Tx power
the UE Tx power increases by 10 increases by < 10 dB
dB
LTE Power Control Calculation
Good sample calculation from Ramadhian Tasha.
This calculation coming from below formula, let’s discuss..

PPUSCH (i)  min{ PCMAX ,10 log 10 (M PUSCH (i))  P0 _ PUSCH ( j )   ( j )  PL  TF (i)  f (i)}[dBm]

Below Huawei Slide of LTE Interworking Telkomsel Project.