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#ilovemyself

#ilovemylife
#ilovemybio
Botany Microbiology

SPECIES
Zoology Taxonomy

Biology
BIODIVERSITY
• different places where organisms live and the
interconnections that bind these organisms
Ecosystem together
• different habitats, niches, species interactions
Diversity

• different organisms, relationships among species


• consists of the large number and all different
Species kinds, shapes, colors and sizes of organisms that
Diversity inhabit the Earth

• genetic information that organisms contain


Genetic
Diversity
Benefits of Biodiversity
SIX KINGDOMS OF LIFE
VOCABULARY

Which term means one-celled? Many-celled?


multicellular
unicellular

Which term means that the organism


produces its own food? Consumes food?
autotroph
heterotroph
VOCABULARY
Prokaryotic – describes an
organism with cells that have a cell
membrane but do NOT have a
nuclear membrane
Eukaryotic – describes an organism
with cells that have a cell
membrane and a nuclear
membrane
VOCABULARY
Autotrophic –
makes its own
food

Heterotrophic –
gets nutrients
from the food it
consumes
List of the Three Domains and
the Six Kingdoms

1. Domain Bacteria
− Kingdom Eubacteria
2. Domain Archaea
− Kingdom Archaebacteria
3. Domain Eukarya
− Kingdom Protista
− Kingdom Fungi
− Kingdom Plantae
− Kingdom Animalia
DOMAIN

Characteristic Bacteria Archaea Eukarya


HABITAT Varies. Some can Can thrive in Intolerant of
tolerate extreme extreme conditions extreme conditions.
heat or decay (heat, pressure, Only very few
conditions salinity, decay) species are able to
withstand such.
MODE OF Phototrophic (from Phototrophic, Phototrophic ,
sunlight) Lithotrophic, Lithotrophic,
NUTRITION Lithotrophic (from Organotrophic Organotrophic
inorganic
compounds)
Organotrophic (from
organic compounds)
REPRODUCTION Asexual, cell division Asexual, cell division Some reproduce
sexually, others
asexually
List of the Three Domains and
the Six Kingdoms

1. Domain Bacteria
− Kingdom Eubacteria
2. Domain Archaea
− Kingdom Archaebacteria
3. Domain Eukarya
− Kingdom Protista
− Kingdom Fungi
− Kingdom Plantae
− Kingdom Animalia
King Phillip Came Over For Good Soup
Botany Microbiology

SPECIES
Zoology Taxonomy

Biology
SPECIES

SCIENTIFIC NAME
Given to organism to be identified. In this way, every
scientist and other people from different places would
use the same name for the same organism.
RULES IN WRITING
The genus name
A second word identifying the species
Species names are usually typeset in italics, when
handwritten, they should be underlined.
The genus name is always written with an initial capital
letter.
The specific name is never written with an initial capital
letter.
The scientific name should generally written in full.
When several species from the same genus are being
listed the genus then be abbreviated to an initial (and
period) for successive species names.
KINGDOMS OF LIFE
Here, the six-kingdom classification will be used
namely: Archaebacteria, Eubacteria, Protist, Fungi,
Plant, and Animal kingdoms.
KINGDOM ARCHAEBACTERIA
 Archaebacteria live in extreme environments
 3.5 billion years old
KINGDOM ARCHAEBACTERIA

Most don’t need oxygen to survive


They can produce ATP (energy) from
sunlight
They can survive enormous temperature
extremes
They can survive high doses of radiation
(radioactivity)
They can survive under rocks and in ocean
floor vents deep below the ocean’s surface
They can tolerate huge pressure differences
3 Main Types

Methanogens Thermophiles Halophiles


METHANOGENS

live in anaerobic, make


methane
found in – sewage
treatment plants, digestive
tracts of animals and
ponds where animal, Methanogens
human, and domestic
waste are treated
HALOPHILES

live in high salt


concentration
adapted to very salty
environments. Examples
are Haloccocus dombrowski
and Halobacterium
salinarum. Halophiles
THERMOPHILES

heat loving, chemosynthetic


found in - hot springs, hydrothermal
vents
can live in places with high
temperature
include volcanic hot springs with
temperatures from 80 to 110 Celsius
turn hydrogen sulfide (H2S) released Thermophiles
from these openings to food for
other organisms and in turn are
provided essential nutrients by the
former
KINGDOM EUBACTERIA
“true bacteria,” unicellular and microscopic, usually
called the “bacteria” group cell walls are made of
peptidoglycan, a carbohydrate
Bacterial Cell Shapes

Bacillus (rod-shaped)

Coccus (round-shaped)

Spirillum (spiral-
shaped)
Pathogenic Bacteria

Your body is a treasure chest of wealth


just waiting to be discovered by
bacteria.
Bacteria have evolved various ways of
entering your body and taking what
they need in order to survive
In some cases, the competition for the
resources in your body can result in
you becoming ill.
SOME HUMAN DISEASES CAUSED BY
BACTERIA

Pimples - Tuberculosis -
Propionibacterium Mycobacterium
acnes tuberculosis

Leptospirosis - Anthrax - Bacillus


Leptospira interrogans anthracis
Is there anything GOOD about
bacteria?
Act as decomposers
Live within our digestive
tract (called probiotics)
Many foods we eat are
processed by bacteria
(pickles, buttermilk, cheese,
sauerkraut, olives, vinegar,
etc.)
Bacteria can be used in
mines to breakdown the
surrounding rock and leave
behind the useful
ore/metal.
CYANOBACTERIA

plantlike because they have


chlorophyll-containing cells
grow in ditches, esteros, or in
moist places like gardens and
sidewalls where light is present

Anabaena azollae
- cyanobacterium is important in
agriculture
- converts nitrogen in air into
compounds usable by plants
for growth and development.
KINGDOM PROTISTA
“Odds and Ends” kingdom
All microscopic organisms that are not plants, not animal, not
bacteria, and not fungi.
THREE CLASSIFICATION

(in terms of method in obtaining energy)


1. Phototrophs – produce their own
food. Phototrophs are like plants in
that they have chlorophyll. This group
includes the algae, dinoflagellates, and
euglenoids.
2. Heterotrophs with no permanent
structure for movement
3. Heterotrophs with flagellates
KINGDOM FUNGI
Eukaryotic, most are multicellular, heterotrophic (decomposers).
Cell walls made of chitin
FIVE MAJOR PHYLUMS
PLANT KINGDOM
Eukaryotic, multicellular, autotrophic.
Cell wall of cellulose; chloroplasts present
ANIMAL KINGDOM
Eukaryotic, multicellular, heterotrophic.
No cell walls, no chloroplasts
TWO MAJOR DIVISIONS

•animals
Invertebrates without a
backbone
•animals
Vertebrates with a
backbone
Invertebrate Classification

What is an Invertebrate?
Invertebrates are animals that do not have backbones.
97 % of the animal kingdom is made up of
invertebrates.
Some can be found in ponds, oceans, and other water
environments.
Insects and some other invertebrates have
exoskeletons.
Six Groups of Invertebrates

Sponges

Cnidarians

Worms

Mollusks

Echinoderms

Arthropods
SPONGES
CNIDARIANS
CORALS, HYDRAS, JELLYFISH
Worms:
Flatworms,
Roundworms,
and
Segmented
worms
WORMS
MOLLUSKS
ARTHROPODS
ECHINODERMS
STARFISH, SEA URCHINS
OSTEICHTHYES

FISH CHONDRICHTHYES

AMPHIBIANS AGNATHA

VERTEBRATES REPTILES

BIRDS

MAMMALS
Animals With Backbones

Animals with backbones are called


vertebrates.
Vertebrates include many different
kinds of animals. They can be found
just about everywhere – in oceans,
rivers, forests, mountains, and deserts.
Animals with backbones can be broken
up into smaller groups by
characteristics.
FISHES
AMPHIBIANS
REPTILES
BIRDS
MAMMALS
Thank you for listening!