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A noun is a word that names

a person , place , thing , or idea.
Singular Nouns
A singular noun names only one person,
place, thing, or idea.
 one boy

 one forest

 one apple

 one piece
Plural Nouns

A plural noun names two or more

people, places, things, or ideas.
 some boys

 six forests

 two apples

 many pieces

What do you notice about each of the

words in the plural list above?
Rule 1
Singular Plural
To form the plural of boy boys
most nouns you
hair hairs
simply add an s to
the end of the trap traps
girl girls

door doors

voice voices

wood woods
Rule 2

If the noun ends in Singular Plural

sh, ch, x, s, or z brush brushes
add es to make it
lunch lunches
fox foxes
 Notice that these success successes
words all end in a buzz buzzes
“hissing” sound.
Rule 3
If a noun ends in a consonant plus y, the y
changes to i before es is added. Note: If the
noun ends in a vowel plus y, just add s.

Singular plural

City cities
Key keys
Play ends in a (vowel) and y therefore the
plural form is plays.
Monkey ends in e (vowel) and y therefore
the plural form is monkeys.
Party ends in t (consonant) and y therefore
the plural form is parties.
Candy ends in d (consonant) and y therefore
the plural form is candies.
Singular Plural
boy boys
baby babies
lily lilies
family families
pony ponies
day days
Rule 4

Most of the words

Singular Plural
that end with f, ff,
or fe are made loaf loaves
plural by changing thief thieves
the ending to -ves. wolf wolves
life lives
half halves
knife knives
Singular Plural
chief chiefs
cliff cliffs
There are exceptions proof proofs

that must be belief beliefs

gulf gulfs
memorized or
roof roofs
looked up.
safe safes
sniff sniffs
chef chefs
ref refs
giraffe giraffes
cafe cafes
chief chiefs
Singular Plural
Rule 5 auto
kilo kilos
memo memos
Words that end in o
photo photos
are usually made piano pianos
plural by adding s. pimento pimentos
poncho ponchos
pro pros
solo solos
soprano sopranos
studio studios
tattoo tattoos
video videos
tobacco tobaccos
zoo zoos
There are exceptions
Singular Plural
that must be echo echoes
memorized or hero heroes
looked up. potato potatoes
tomato tomatoes
torpedo torpedoes
echo echoes
veto vetoes
embargo embargoes
Rule 6 Singular Plural
sheep sheep
moose moose
Some words are the deer deer
same in both the perch perch
singular and the salmon salmon
plural forms. fish fish
tuna tuna
trout trout
bison bison
series series
swine swine
corps corps
Rule 7
Some words form
Singular Plural
their plural by
mouse mice
changing the whole
child children
word. These are
man men
called irregular
nouns. With tooth teeth

irregular nouns, you foot Feet

have to memorize goose Geese
the plural form. person people
ox oxen
louse lice
woman women