Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 44



Every structure consists of two parts:

1) Sub-structure or foundation
2) Super structure
• Introduction :
• A structure essentially consists of two parts, namely the super
structure which is above the plinth level and the substructure which is
below the plinth level.
• Substructure is otherwise known as the foundation and this forms the
base for any structure. Generally about 30% of the total construction
cost is spent on the foundation.
• The soil on which the foundation rests is called the “foundation soil”.
Foundation : It is the lowest part of a structure
which is constructed below the ground
Foundation bed: A solid ground on which
foundations rest is called foundation bed. Ultimately
the load from the foundation is transferred to the
foundation bed.
Superstructure: It is the structure which is
constructed above the ground level.
Plinth : It is the part of the superstructure
constructed between ground level and floor level.
Functions of foundations
Reduction of load intensity: Foundations
distribute the loads of the Super-structure to a
larger area So that the intensity of the load at it
base does not exceed the safe bearing capacity
of the Sub-soil.
Even distribution of load: Foundations
distribute the non-uniform load of the Super-
structure evenly to sub-soil.
Provision of level surface: It provides leveled
and hard surface over which the super-structure
can be built.
Lateral stability: It anchors the super-structure
of the ground, thus imparting lateral stability to
the super- structure.
Safety against undermining: It provides the
structural safety against undermining or scouring
due to burrowing animals and flood water.
Protection against soil movements: Special
foundation measures prevent or minimize the
distress (or cracks) in the super- structure due to
expansion or contraction of the sub-soil because
of movement in some soil like black cotton soil.
Support : It provides support to the
Requirements of good Foundation
• The foundation shall be constructed to sustain the dead and
imposed loads and to transmit these to the sub-soil.
• Foundation should be taken sufficient in deep into the ground so
that the structure is not affected by ground movement such as
swelling. Shrinking, freezing. The landslide also should not affect
the stability of the building. The structure should be safe against
the damage and distress.
• Foundation base should be rigid so that the differential settlement
are minimised, especially in a case when superimposed loads are
not evenly distributed over the foundation.
• Foundation should also be so located that its performance is not
affected due to any unexpected future influence like earthquake
and overloading.
Requirements of good Foundation

• Foundations must be designed to resist the ultimate loading cases

combination to resist both overturning and sliding.
• Foundation should resist attack from chemicals in soil.
Groundwater and soil may contain different types of chemicals
which are harmful to the foundation concrete, the most aggressive
of which are sulphates. Sulphate attack can usually be offset by
using sulphate resisting cement, but even this will not be a perfect
alternative to the problem unless sufficient care is taken in placing
the concrete, by vibrating and curing.
• Foundation should be taken deep enough to resist the
overturning, though soil bearing capacity is good at sufficient
depth. And also deep enough so as to be free from swelling and


Uniform settlement is usually of little consequence in a building, but differential
settlement can cause severe structural damage
Types of foundation
1. Shallow Foundations (D<= B)
2. Deep Foundations (D> B)

• Types of foundation : Types of Pile foundation :
• Friction pile
The two main types of foundation • Load bearing pile
are :
• Shallow foundation (spread
foundation) and
• Deep foundation
Note : Under-reamed piles is a
Types of Shallow foundation : type of load bearing pile
• Isolated footing (single footing,
Column footing)
• Combined footing
• Wall foundation
• Mat or raft foundation
Types of Deep foundation :
• Pile foundation
• Pier foundation
• Shallow foundation (spread
• Depth of foundation is less than
or equal to its width.

• Isolated footing (single footing,

column footing):
• In framed structures where
several columns are to be
constructed, isolated footings
can be adopted.
• The columns involved can be • In case of masonry footing, the
provided with masonry or projection of each step must be ½
concrete footing. brick thick and each step is made
• If masonry footing is provided, of 1 or 2 bricks put together.
steps are given and the • Concrete can be moulded to any
foundation area is thus shape and hence a concrete
increased so that the stresses footing may be a sloping one to
developed at the base is within provide sufficient spread.
the limit.
• Isolated footing (single footing, column footing)…
• Isolated footing (single footing, column footing)…
• Isolated footing (single footing, column footing)…
wall footing
Combined footing
The footing provided for two or more columns is
known as a combined footing.

Following points should be noted in case of

combined footing:
The shape of the combined footing should be so
selected that the centres of gravity of the column
loads and of soils reaction remain in the same
The combined footing is treated as an inverted floor
supported by the columns and loaded by earth
 A combined footing is the one which supports two
columns and it may be rectangular or trapezoidal in plan.
 The aim is to get uniform pressure distribution under the
Combined footings are used in the following situations:
 When the columns are very near to each other so that
their footings overlap.
 When the bearing capacity of the soil is less, requiring
more area under individual footing.
 When the end column is near a property line so that its
footing cannot spread in that direction.


Combined Trapezoidal Footing

Combined Rectangular
Mat or raft foundation
It is most suitable foundation when the soil at the site
proposed for the construction of a structure is erratic,
soft clay, made up ground with low bearing capacity.
Mat foundation is constructed of RCC slab covering
the whole area of the bottom of the structure.
The slab is provided with steel reinforcing bars in
both directions.
When column loads are heavy, the main beams and
secondary beams are provided monolithically with
raft slab.
Raft Foundation




• Deep foundation :
• Deep foundation consists of
pile and pier foundations.
• This consists in carrying down
through the soil a huge
masonry cylinder which may be
supported by the sides of soil
or may be supported on solid
rock (hard stratum).

• Pile foundation :
• Pile is an element of
construction used as
foundation. It may be driven in
the ground vertically or with
some inclination to transfer the
load safely.
• Pile :
• A slender, structural member
consisting steel or concrete or
• It is installed in the ground to
transfer the structural loads to
soils at some significant depth
below the base of the structure.
Pile foundation
In case of deep foundations, piles are used to
transfer the loads from the structure to the soil.

Pile foundation means construction for the

foundation of wall or pier, which in turn is
supported on the piles.
They may be placed separately or together.
This type of foundation is adopted when the loose
soil extends up to greater depths.
Piles are long, slender members & are driven into
ground or bored cast-in-situ.
Pile caps are thick slabs used
to tie a group of piles together
to support and transmit column
loads to the piles.
Classification of piles based on
their function

End bearing piles

Friction piles
Compaction piles
Tension piles
Anchor piles
Situations demanding pile

Load coming on the structure is heavy and

distribution is heavy.
When subsoil water is likely to rise & fall
When pumping of subsoil water is costly.
When the construction of Raft foundation seems
to be costly or is practically impossible.
Where loose soil extends up to greater depths.
In areas where in future canals, deep
drainage lines etc. are likely to be
Near sea shores or marine areas, which may
affect foundation.
They also act as anchors. It gives lateral
stability and resist Upward Pressure or Uplift
Classification of piles based
on materials & composition
Concrete piles
1) Pre-cast
2) Cast-in-situ
Timber piles
Steel piles
1) H piles
2) Pipe piles
3) Sheet piles
Composite piles
1) Concrete & Timber
2) Concrete & Steel
End bearing piles
These piles are driven until
hard strata is reached.
Such piers act as pillars or

columns for the superstructure.
 Bearing piles do not support
the load, rather they act as
medium to transmit the load
from the foundation to the hard

Friction piles
 When the loose soil extends up
to greater depths this type of
piles are used.
 Here the load carried by the piles
is taken by the friction developed
between the sides of the piles and
surrounding ground or soil.
 It is called Skin Friction.
 In such cases piles are named as
friction piles or floating piles.
 They are used in situations where
strength of the soil do not
increase with the depth.
Frictional Resistance of piles can be
increased by :

Increasing the diameter of the piles.

By driving the piles to a greater depths.
By making the surface of the pile rough.
By placing the piles closely.
By grouping the piles.

The sand compaction pile (SCP) method is a

method of improving soft ground by means
of installing well-compacted sand piles in
the ground.
 It combines such fundamental principles of
ground improvement as densification and
It can be applied to all soil types, from
sandy to clayey soils, and it has therefore
been widely used in Japan for improvement
tension piles

A pile behind the retaining wall to which tie-back

rods or cables are connected.
Generally used for retaining walls
Marine structures where pushing pressure is very
anchor piles
When piles are used to provide anchorage against
horizontal pull from the sheet piling walls or other
pulling forces, they are called anchor piles.
Cement concrete piles
Pre-cast piles:
1. They are reinforced concrete piles of circular,
rectangular or octagonal in shape.
2. These piles are cast and cured at the casting yard and
then transported to the site.
3. They are driven into the ground with the help of pile
4. General dimensions of these piles are Diameter 35-
65cm and length 4.5-30m.
5. The function of the reinforcement in the piles is to
resist the stresses produced on account of its handling,
driving and the load which the pile is finally expected
to receive.
Cast-in-situ :
1. These are the piles which are cast in position inside the
2. Since piles are not subjected to handling or driving stresses, it
is not necessary to provide reinforcement in ordinary piles.
3. Reinforcement is provided when piles act as a column & is
subjected to lateral forces.
4. Here a bore hole is dug into the ground & casing is inserted.
5. The bore hole is then filled with cement concrete after
placing reinforcement, if any.
6. The casing may be kept in position or it may be withdrawn.
7. This type of piles are called Cast-in-Situ piles.