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Networks

Networks
A system of interconnected computers, telephones, or
other communications devices that can communicate
with one another and share applications and data.
Networks
• Before we had computer networks, people used
“sneaker-net” to share data between computers.
• Person 1 saved their document to a floppy disk.
• Then they walked over to person 2’s desk (wearing
sneakers, of course) and handed over the disk to person
2.
• Person 2 loaded the disk into their computer to read and
edit the document.
Networks
• Networks have become standard. They enable us to:
• Share peripheral devices such as printers.
• Share programs and data.
• Use e-mail and other communication programs.
• Backup critical information because it is stored centrally.
• Access shared databases .
Communication Systems

Electronic systems that transmit data from one location


to another
Computing Essentials 2017

© 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or
posted on a website, in whole or part.
Basic Elements of Communication
Four basic elements of communication systems
 Sending and receiving devices
Computer or a specialized communication device
 Connection devices
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Interface between sending and receiving device


 Data transmission specifications
Rules and procedures that coordinate the devices
 Communication channel
Carries the message
© 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or
posted on a website, in whole or part.
Network Types
Computing Essentials 2017

© 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or
posted on a website, in whole or part.
Network Architecture

How the network is arranged and resources are shared


 Network Topology
 Physical arrangement of the network
 Network Strategy
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 How the information and resources are shared

© 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or
posted on a website, in whole or part.
Ring Network

topology in which each node


connects to exactly two other
nodes, forming a single
continuous pathway for signals
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through each node.

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posted on a website, in whole or part.
Star Network

Topology where each


device connected
directly to a central
Computing Essentials 2017

network switch

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posted on a website, in whole or part.
Tree Network

• Topology where each device


connected to a central node
either directly or through
subordinate nodes.
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• Also called hierarchical.

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posted on a website, in whole or part.
Mesh Network

 Topology that does not use a specific


physical layout, but requires that each
node have more than one connection to
other nodes.
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 Wireless technologies are frequently used.


.

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posted on a website, in whole or part.
Network Strategies
 Client/Server Network
 Central computers coordinate and
supply services to other nodes on the
network.
 Server provides access.
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 Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Network


 All nodes have equal authority
 Can act as both client and server.

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posted on a website, in whole or part.
Peer-to-Peer (continued)
 Cheaper than client/server since servers are typically more
expensive than PCs
 There are often problems with knowing who has the current
version of documents and files
 file-sharing is more difficult to control since there is no
central server to shut down
Computing Essentials 2017

 Too slow for use in larger offices

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posted on a website, in whole or part.
Connection Devices
Devices need to convert digital signal to analog
 Modem – modulator-demodulator
 Modulation is the process of converting from analog to digital.
 Demodulation is the process of converting from digital to
analog.
Computing Essentials 2017

 Transfer rate
 Speed in which modems transfer data
 Usually measured in megabits per second (Mbps)

© 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or
posted on a website, in whole or part.
Specialized Terms in a Network

 Nodes
 Any device connected to a network.
 Client
 A node that requests and uses resources from other nodes.
 Server
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 A node that shares resources with other nodes.


 Directory Server
 Specialized server that managers resources.
 Host
 Computer system that can be accessed over a network.
© 2017 by McGraw-Hill Education. This proprietary material solely for authorized instructor use. Not authorized for sale or distribution in any manner. This document may not be copied, scanned, duplicated, forwarded, distributed, or
posted on a website, in whole or part.
Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards

 Problem: internet was begun to foster collaboration among


universities and scientists. They trusted each other. No security was
built into the internet.
 Problem: the internet is open-access and is used by some people
who are not trustworthy, who take advantage of the lack of built-in
safeguards.
Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards
 Denial of Service Attacks
 Consist of making repeated requests of a computer or network device, thereby
overloading it and causing legitimate requests to be ignored
 Used to target particular companies or individuals
 Worms
 A program that copies itself repeatedly into a computer’s memory or disk drive
 May copy itself so much it crashes the infected computer
 Famous worms include: Code Red, Nimda, Klez, Sasser, Bagle
 Primarily target PCs running Microsoft Windows
Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards
 Viruses
 A deviant program that hides on a floppy, hard drive, CD, or e-mail that causes
unexpected side effects such as destroying or corrupting data
 Viruses self-replicate and try to secretly distribute themselves to other systems
 Famous viruses include the “I Love You” virus
 Viruses are published at the rate of about one per day
Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards
 Trojan Horses
 Programs that pretend to be a useful program such as a free game or screensaver
 Carry viruses or malicious instructions that damage your computer or install a
backdoor or spyware
 Backdoors and spyware allow others to access your computer without your
knowledge
Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards
 Trojan Horses
 How they spread
 Via e-mail attachments
 By infected floppies or CDs
 By clicking on infiltrated websites
 By downloading from infected files from websites
 From one infected PC on a LAN to another
 What can you do about it?
 Install anti-virus software and subscribe to the automatic anti-virus update service
Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards

 Hackers are either


 Computer enthusiasts, people who enjoy learning about
programming and computers (good)
 People who gain unauthorized access to computers or networks,
often for fun or to see if they can (not good)
 Crackers
 Malicious hackers who break into computers for malicious
purposes
Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards

 Safeguards
 Use antivirus software, and keep it current
 Install a firewall to monitor network traffic and filter out undesirable types
of traffic and undesirable sites
 Use robust passwords:
 Minimum 8 characters with letters, numbers, characters
 4cats is not a good password, but f0UrK@tTz is safer
Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards
 Install antispyware software
 Encrypt financial and personal records so only you can read them
 Back up your data, so if your PC is attacked and must be
reformatted, you can restore your data
 Never download from a website you don’t trust
 Consider Biometric authentication
Cyberthreats, Hackers, & Safeguards
 Encryption
 The process of altering readable data into unreadable form to
prevent unauthorized access
 Uses powerful mathematical ciphers to create coded messages
that are difficult to break