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Our Dynamic Earth

Describe internal forces such as volcanoes,
earthquakes, faulting, and plate movements that
are responsible for the earth’s major geological
features such as mountains, valleys, etc.
Look and Wonder
How could these mountains
have formed?

Volcanic eruptions
or pressure from
below could have
formed these
What makes up Earth?

Scientists have gathered evidence

from earthquakes and volcanoes to
form a model of Earth’s interior.
Earth is made of layers that differ in
composition, thickness, and
The central part
of Earth. The
outer core is
made up of
liquid metals
(molten). The
inner core is
made of solid
It is a thick
layer of solid
and molten
rock that lies
around the
core and under
the crust.
It is the thin
layer of solid
rock that
makes up the
part of Earth.
The Layers of Earth
• Crust
• Upper Mantle (lithosphere)
• Lower Mantle (asthenosphere)
• Outer Core
• Inner Core
All the Earth’s
liquid and
solid water,
oceans, lakes,
glaciers, and
water located
Geological Features
Earth’s Crust
• Earth’s crust makes up the surface of Earth.
The surface of Earth includes all the
continents and the ocean floor. Geological
features are found on the surface of Earth.
Geological Feature

A physical structure on Earth’s surface.

Ex. Mountains, Valleys, Ridges
Are the continents moving?

A hundred years ago, Alfred Wegner, a German geologist, noticed that the continents
looked like the pieces of a jig saw puzzle. He felt that the continents were once altogether
and broke apart over time. This is called the Theory of Continental Drift.
Plate Tectonics

A theory that explains how forces deep

within Earth can cause the ocean floors
to move.
What causes tectonic plate
• Earth can cause ocean floors to spread and
continents to move. The lithosphere is made
of huge plates of solid rock. Earth’s
continents rest on these plates.

Is a break or crack in the rock located along boundaries

between tectonic plates where movements take place.
Fault types.mov - YouTube
In the middle of the ocean where the plates are moving
apart, magma is pushed up from the mantle toward the

Magma: Hot, melted rock that is pushed

up from the mantle toward the surface.
Volcanic Mountain
• Volcanic Mountains are
formed when molten
rock (magma) deep
within the earth, erupts,
and piles upon the
surface. Magma is
called lava when it Mt. St. Helens
breaks through the
earth's crust. When the
ash and lava cools, it
builds a cone of rock.
Rock and lava pile up,
layer on top of layer
Mauna Kea
Fault Block Mountain
• Fault-block mountains are formed by the
movement of large crustal blocks when forces
in the Earth's crust pull it apart. Some parts of
the Earth are pushed upward and others
collapse down.
• Mountains form when plates
Push against each other

• Ex. Sierra Nevada

Folded Mountains
• Fold mountains are mountain ranges that
are formed when two of the tectonic plates
that make up the Earth's crust push together
at their border.
• Mountains form when rock fold together
• Great Smokey & Himalayas

Is a sudden
movement of
the Earth’s
Earthquakes- Cause
• The rock on both sides of a fault is pushed
and pulled by forces in the crust.
• Usually rocks on both sides of a fault are
stuck together. When layers of rock that are
stuck together suddenly slip, an earthquake
Earthquakes- Continued
• Earthquakes happen along the boundaries of
tectonic plates because the pressure from
the movement of the plates pushes on faults.
An earthquake is a sudden The place where slipping Earthquakes happen along the
movement of the Earth’s begins is called the boundaries of tectonic plates
crust. Rock that has been because the pressure from the
earthquake’s focus.
stuck together suddenly slips. movement of the plates
Waves of energy ripple pushes on nearby faults.
Slipping occurs along a fault outward from the focus
under the Earth’s surface.
directly above the focus.
Most earthquakes occur less
than 80 km under the The point above the focus
surface but can go as deep as where the waves begin is
644 km. called the epicenter.

Huge waves produced by underwater

For thousands, even millions of years, little
pieces of our earth have been eroded--broken
down and worn away
by wind and water. These little bits of our earth
are washed downstream where they settle to the
bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer
after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of
each. These layers are pressed down more and
more through time, until the bottom layers
slowly turn into rock.
Metamorphic rocks are rocks that have
"morphed" into another kind of rock. These
rocks were once igneous or sedimentary rocks.
How do sedimentary and igneous rocks change?
The rocks are under tons and tons of pressure,
which fosters heat build up, and this causes
them to change. If you examine metamorphic
rock samples closely, you'll discover how
flattened some of the grains in the rock are.
orbit: 149,600,000 km (1.00 AU) from Sun At the equator, the Earth's surface moves
diameter: 12,756.3 km mass: 5.972e24 kg 40,000 kilometres in 24 hours.

Did you know that the

Earth is revolving
around the sun at 30

When to plates
collide, an Earth
quake will
Thank You!
Ms.Vrenely S. Alcaraz