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Journal Reading

Wirdah Ulfahaini M.
1810029018

Pembimbing :
dr. Fahroni Cahyono W., Sp.OT

Anterior Cruciate Ligament


Injuries: Anatomy,
Physiology, Biomechanics,
and Management
Leon Siegel, BA,* Carol Vandenakker-Albanese, MD,t and
David Siegel, MD, MPH,t§
Introduction
• In the United States, anterior cruciate ligament
(ACL) injuries total between 100 000 and 200 000
yearly

• the most common ligament injury.

• increase in both the general population and in


individuals who play sports.

• Football players sustain the greatest number of


ACL injuries (53% of the total) with skiers and
gymnasts also at high
Anatomy of ACL

controls anterior movement of the tibia and inhibits


extreme ranges of tibial rotation

composed of type I collagen fibers

primary blood supply to the ligament comes from the


middle genicular artery, with additional supply
coming from the inferomedial and inferolateral
genicular arteries.

several types of mechanoreceptors found within the


ACL: Ruffini corpuscles, pacinian corpuscles,
Golgi-like organs, and free nerve ends
Anatomy of ACL
ACL consists of 2 major bundles, the
posterolateral bundle (PL) and the
anteromedial bundle (AM)

Both bundles originate on the


posteromedial side of the lateral
femoral condyle and insert on a
region just anterior to the
intercondylar tibial eminence
Add Contents
Here
The broad ACL tibial insertion point occurs
so that there is no physiological
impingement on the intercondylar notch in
full extension. Placement of the ACL graft
insertion into the tibia during
reconstructive surgery must adhere to this
principle.
DIAGNOSIS
The most common history of an ACL injury may be of a noncontact
deceleration, jumping, or cutting action, frequently involving
changing direction

Pain +++

If the ACL injury results from direct contact, (1/3 patients) is often a
history of hyperextension or valgus stress on the knee.

A “POP” is frequently heard and/or felt.

Postinjury swelling of the knee frequently occurs at about 4 hours


Diagnosis
-Physical examination-
Look
•Swelling
•aspiration usually reveals hemarthrosis

Feel
•Pain

Move
Lachman Test (sensitivity of 85% and a specificity of 94% for ACL rupture)
•usually performed at 20-degree to 30-degree angle of knee flexion while stabilizing
the distal femur with one hand.
•A manual force is then applied to the proximal tibia with the opposite hand, and
anterior laxity is assessed in the degree of anterior translation of the tibia relative to
the femur.
Diagnosis
-Radiography-
• arthroscopy as the
gold standard,

• magnetic resonance
imaging (MRI) has a
specificity of 95% and
a sensitivity of 86% for
diagnosing ACL injuries

•Magnetic resonance
imaging is able to
visualize both bundles
of the native ACL, an
important information for
surgical reconstruction
when the double-bundle
technique is used
Treatment

patients should be advised to ice, compress,


elevate, and limit the use of the injured knee
immediately after the injury

Non-Surgical (Conservative) Surgical

If the injury to the ACL also affects the associated


structures within the knee, including the menisci, PCL,
medial collateral ligament, or lateral collateral
ligament, surgical reconstruction is needed.
Non-surgical treatment

Indication Physical Therapy Studies


without surgical •there is a significant increase in
• serious comorbid physical therapist or repair, the knee rates of damage to menisci and
medical conditions athletic trainer aimed generally articular cartilage associated with
including serious at strengthening the remains delayed reconstruction
cardiac, renal, or muscles around the unstable and •patients with high level of sports
hepatic disease knee, especially the prone to further activity show poor results after
quadriceps femoris injury
•they no longer wish conservative treatment of ACL
and hamstring
to participate in ruptures
muscles
strenuous physical
activities..
Surgical Treatment

Surgical
Treatment

POSTOPERATIVE
REHABILITATION
Single-Bundle Versus
Graft selection Graft Placement
Double-Bundle Femoral Tunnel Drilling
Reconstruction Techniques
Graft Selection
The 2 most commonly used grafts in ACL reconstruction
are the patellar tendon (PT) and the 4-strand
hamstring (HS) tendon made of gracilis and
semitendonosus tendons

PT Grafts HS grafts
(+) readily accessible, have good structural fixation • The HS tendon graft with all 4 strands equally
properties, and have the potential for tendon-to-bone tensioned can withstand much greater tension
healing strains than a 10-mm PT graft.

(-) anterior knee pain, loss of sensation, patellar •harvesting HS grafts can severely reduce HS
fracture, and inferior patellar contracture strength and endurance up to 9 months after the
surgery
• the PT group had a 79% side-to-side difference of <3 mm compared
with 73.8% for the HS group, leading the authors to conclude that PT
autografts led to more stable reconstructed knees than HS tendon
grafts

• No significant differences between PT and HS grafts were found


between the proportion of patients requiring postoperative meniscal
surgery

• no statistically significant differences were seen between PT


autografts and HS autografts infection rates
Single-Bundle Versus Double-Bundle Reconstruction

Double-bundle
single-bundle Double-bundle restored knees are
better at resisting extrinsic forces
placed on the knee. Although the
Single-bundle reconstruction can restore double-bundle technique is better at
anterior-posterior knee stability but
restoring normal knee kinematics,
produces knees that are unable to resist
combined rotatory loads and do not have there are some disadvantages. It is
normal rotational kinematics. more difficult to perform surgically
and could be the cause of
reconstruction failures due to the
improper positioning of bone tunnels.
Graft Placement
have a major impact on the clinical outcome of ACL reconstruction.

Failure to regain full flexion postoperatively can be caused by high graft tension
during extension of the knee, which in turn may cause the graft to stretch.

' This may occur when the ACL graft is placed vertically at the apex of the notch,
with the tibial tunnel being in a vertical orientation at an angle >70 degrees from the
medial joint line of the tibia and the femoral tunnel and then drilled through that tibial
tunnel.

There is no consensus on the amount of ligament tensioning or the optimal knee


flexion angle. Some surgeons prefer to set the tension of the AM bundle in
moderate flexion and the PL bundle near full extension
Femoral Tunnel Drilling Techniques
The transtibial technique (drilling through the tibial tunnel)
the far anteromedial portal technique (drilling through the far
the knee should be flexed at 90 degrees for drilling of the
anteromedial tunnel)
femoral bone tunnel

far anteromedial portal approach makes it easier


to access the femoral footprint of the AM and PL
bundles

the PL bundle tunnel should be drilled at a knee position of


110 degrees of extension to avoid damage to the
subchondral bone, cartilage of the lateral femoral condyle,
and peroneal nerye
POSTOPERATIVE
REHABILITATION
Closed kinematic chain
exercises are those in which
Goals the foot is in contact with a
solid surface such as with
to restore normal joint motion and squats and leg presses
strength to the reconstructed knee
while protecting the graft

Open kinematic chain


include exercises to enhance core exercises, in which the foot
strength, balance, and proprioception is not in contact with a solid
early range of motion (within 1-2
surface, such as those using
weeks after the surgery), leg extension, are considered
less safe in the postoperative
earlier return to sports (usually not period and should be added
before 6 months or until there is return no sooner than 6 weeks after
of at least 80% of thigh strength and the the surgery.
ability to do sportspecific agility drills)
Thank You