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Measures of Association

For continuous linearly related

Pearson correlation coefficient
variables
For nonlinear data or relating a main
Correlation ratio (eta) effect to a continuous dependent
variable
One continuous and one dichotomous
Biserial variable with an underlying normal
distribution
Three variables; relating two with the
Partial correlation
third’s effect taken out
Three variables; relating one variable
Multiple correlation
with two others
Predicting one variable from another’s
Bivariate linear regression
19-2
scores
Measures of Association: Ordinal

Based on concordant-discordant pairs;

Gamma proportional reduction in error (PRE)
interpretation

Kendall’s tau c
dimensions

Somers’s d
gamma

Product moment correlation for ranked

Spearman’s rho
data
19-3
Measures of Association: Nominal

Phi Chi-square based for 2*2 tables

CS based; adjustment when one table
Cramer’s V
dimension >2
CS based; flexible data and distribution
Contingency coefficient C
assumptions

PRE based with table marginals

Goodman & Kruskal’s tau
emphasis
Uncertainty coefficient Useful for multidimensional tables

Kappa Agreement measure

19-4
Pearson’s Product Moment Correlation r

What is the direction of the relationship?

19-5
Exhibit 19-2 Scatterplots of Relationships

19-6
Exhibit 19-4 Scatterplots

19-7
Interpretation of Coefficients

A coefficient is not remarkable simply

because it is statistically significant! It
must be practically meaningful.

19-8
Exhibit 19-9 Comparison of Bivariate
Linear Correlation and Regression

19-9
Examples of Different Slopes

19-10
Testing Goodness of Fit

Y is completely unrelated to X
and no systematic pattern is evident

There are constant values of

Y for every value of X

The data are related but

represented by a nonlinear function

19-11
Exhibit 19-18 Components of Variation

19-12
Coefficient of Determination: r2

Total proportion of variance in Y

explained by X
Desired r2: 80% or more

19-13
Exhibit 19-20 Chi-Square Based Measures

19-14
Exhibit 19-22 Statistical Alternatives for Ordinal
Measures

19-15