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Single

Surface
Double
Surface
Sign
Convention

Multiple Lens
Lens

Aberration

Telescope
Angular
Magnification

Use instead appearance magnification


When object distance is infinity
Single All we know is refraction law 𝑛1 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃1 = 𝑛2 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃2
To find image position q, we need to use the angle
Surface 𝛼, 𝛽, 𝛾 instead 𝜃1 , 𝜃2

By applying a very small angle, we can approximate that 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜃 ≈ 𝜃 ≈ 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃


After 3 time approximation, we can prove that
We just want to figure out 𝑛1 𝑛2 (𝑛2 −𝑛1 )
+ =
where the image position is. 𝑝 𝑞 𝑅
An equation for single surface
If object is the same side as the incident ray, then p is plus, otherwise minus.
If image is the opposite side to the incident ray, then q is plus otherwise minus
Single
Surface

Observer 1

Observer 2

Observer 1 see only object at the point O where as observer 2 see only object at the point I
No one can see object at point O and I at the same time according to the light ray come to individual
Observer. Observer 1 can’t see object at point I because light ray from point I can’t reach observer 1.
The man see fish under the water
because light from fish come
Single to his eyes. Hence 𝑛1 is water
Surface and 𝑛2 is air

2𝑛𝑑 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 1𝑠𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒

Object
Image
ลึกจริงลึกปรากฏ

If the image occur after the 2𝑛𝑑 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒,


the calculation will be apply for just
1𝑠𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 because light ray propagate
through only 1𝑠𝑡 𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒
The fish see fish above the water
because light from man come
If refracting surface is flat, then R is infinite. to fish eyes. Hence 𝑛1 is air
𝑛 Please note that p and q measure from the and 𝑛2 is water
2
Hence 𝑞 = − 𝑝
𝑛1 Considered surface
𝑝2 must be equal 𝑞1 + 𝑡
Double But 𝑞1 is negative because the
Surface Image is on the same side with
Incident ray. Hence
𝑝2 = −𝑞1 + 𝑡
𝑛1 𝑛2 (𝑛2 −𝑛1 )
𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 1: + = Because lens is very thin,
𝑝1 𝑞1 𝑅1
hence we should derive
𝑛2 𝑛1 (𝑛1 −𝑛1 ) thin lens equation
𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 2: + =
𝑝2 𝑞2 𝑅2 𝑛1 𝑛1 1 1
p and q is measured from each + = (𝑛2 −𝑛1 ) −
𝑝1 𝑞2 𝑅1 𝑅2
Considered surface. Don’t measure
𝑞2 from surface 1
R is positive or negative depend on light and surface
Light propagate through 2 surface After light
pass surface 1, light is little Refracted. That
light According to the left picture
refracted light incident Surface 2 and that R is positive
surface would see that This light is come from When light incident surface 1
image 𝐼1 instead Original object. Hence when R is positive but when light
we want to calculate image from surface 2 Incident surface 2 R is negative
light
Object of the surface 2 is the image of surface 1 R is negative
As we define focus point in previous section,
it is a point that the parallel ray from the object Double
formed the image at that position. Surface
It mean when 𝑝 ≈ ∞ then 𝑓 = 𝑞
and from the previous equation

𝑛1 𝑛1 1 1 𝑓>0
+ = (𝑛2 −𝑛1 ) −
𝑝1 𝑞2 𝑅1 𝑅2
You will find that

1 (𝑛2 −𝑛1 ) 1 1
= −
𝑓 𝑛1 𝑅1 𝑅2

Then you will get a familiar equation 𝑓<0

1 1 1
+ =
𝑝 𝑞 𝑓
It mean that we can threat a complex optical Please consider each picture why 𝑓 > 0 𝑜𝑟 𝑓 < 0 and it is not depend on
system with only just 𝑓 parameter to find the The direction of the light (light incident to front or back lens)
last image from the optical system.
Like previous, we will treat that image of the Multiple
optical system 1 (lens 1) will be image of the
optical system 2 (lens 2), but the distance
Lens
Between lens can’t approximate to zero.
Hence
𝑝2 = −𝑞1 + 𝑡

and do a hardcore job

Please check that the image distance of


This 2 lens is -6.67 cm.
Figure out why the
Two image occur at
The same position and
Equal size. This is a good
Start and you will enjoy
This problem.
Apparent Angular ℎ0
Magnification Magnification

Apparent Magnification increases apparent size of the object


by mirror, lens. The equation is
ℎ′ 𝑞 ℎ𝐼
𝑀= =− ℎ0
ℎ 𝑝
How ever there are situation that we can see image larger
even though it’s high is less than the object. When you place
a smaller object near to you, it seem larger than a far away Object is at 25 cm with high ℎ, but when
big object. This is called angular magnification We see the object through lens the image
𝜃 ℎ𝐼 (same high) near to you with distant p. Hence
𝑚= =
𝜃0 ℎ𝑂 We see the image of the object larger.

If there is lens with focus length 𝑓1 , 𝑓2 , … . 𝑓𝑛 in the lens system, each one has magnification 𝑀1 , 𝑀2 , … 𝑀𝑛
respectively
1. Please prove that the magnification of the lens system is 𝑀 = 𝑀1 𝑀2 … 𝑀𝑛 .
1 1 1 1
2. Please prove that the focal length of the lens system is = + + ⋯ + .
𝑓 𝑓1 𝑓2 𝑓𝑛
Telescope m= 𝜃
𝜃
𝑜

Light from the star is a parallel ray hence the image of star is
formed at focus of objective lens. If you move your eyes to the
image, larger image you would see. However your eyes is so
tire when see very near image or object, so an eyepiece lens is
used to make your eyes more compatible to see the image by
making the ray of the image become a parallel ray like you are
seeing very far object.
สำหร ับตำแหน่ งภำพสุดท ้ำย 𝐼2
+ = ถ ้ำ 𝑝 = 𝑓 ดังนั้น 𝑞 ≈ ∞ แต่กำลังขยำยจะขึนอยู

1 1 1
่กบั
𝑝 𝑞 𝑓
่ นวัตถุ
มุมทีเห็
Because incident angle from star is so little, then 𝜃 ≈ 𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃
ℎ′ ℎ′
𝑡𝑎𝑛𝜃0 = and tan𝜃 =
𝑓0 𝑓𝑒

𝜃 𝑓𝑒
Then m= =
𝜃0 𝑓0