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Standard Operating Procedures

for
Manufacturing & Service

郭倉義
中山大學企業管理學系
• Imagine your are a manager of a bookstore
• You hired an hourly worker recently
• What are you going to do with him/her?
No Time for
Training

Firefighting

Ineffective & Ineffective


Varied Results Training
Develop Workplace Talents
• Understand Skills Required
• Breakdown job to pieces
Identify Critical • Identify Key Points / Reasons
Knowledge • Job breakdown Sheets

• Job Instruction (4 steps methods)


Transfer
Knowledge

• Confirm results of Training


• Adjust the Process
Verify Learning • (Plan, Do, Check, Action)
& Success
Develop Workplace Talents
• Defining Critical Knowledge
– SOP:
• Identify work requirements
• Document work requirements
– Critical requirements vs. Personal preference
• Transferring the critical knowledge
– Job Instruction (Training Within Industry, TWI)
• Follow-up
– Verify the results
Five Critical Workplace Knowledge
Fundamental Skills

Ancillary Task Knowledge

Policies and Judgments

Core Job-specific Knowledge

Accumulated Know-how
Driving a Car
Fundamental
Skills
Ancillary
Policies and
Tasks
Judgments
Knowledge

Core Task
(Driving)

Accumulated Know-How
• Fundamental Skills
– Applicable to all driving situations
• Family cars, Racing cars, emergency vehicles
– Starting / Turning off the car
– Seat belts operation
– Accelerating / Braking
– Backing up
– General maneuvering (Turns, signals…)
• Ancillary Tasks Knowledge
– Secondary and supportive
• Driving is still possible without doing these task
• Outsource to other sources
– Filling the gas tank
– Change flat tires
– Change oil
– Servicing per manufacturer’s recommendations
• Policies and Judgments
– Rules for safe driving
• The right of road,
– Traffic signs
– Traffic lights
– Emergency vehicles
– Night driving
– Country driving
• Core task
– Driving on the road
• Apply knowledge in the context of real work
environment
– Share road with others
– Moving through the intersections
• Yellow light means Stop vs Rush
– Merging into traffic
– Passing
• Accumulated Know-how
• Appling knowledge become automatic
– Driving in various conditions
• Night conditions
• Winter condition
• Driving in fog
– Response to near-accident situation
– Driving etiquette
Develop Workplace Talents
• Defining Critical Knowledge
– SOP:
• Identify work requirements
• Document work requirements
– Critical requirements vs. Personal preference
• Transferring the critical knowledge
– Job Instruction (Training Within Industry, TWI)
• Follow-up
– Verify the results
• Document work requirements
– Breakdown job to pieces
– Identify key points and reasons
– Job breakdown sheet
• Document work requirements
– Breakdown job to pieces
– Identify key points and reasons
– Job breakdown sheet
Vanilla Pound Cake
Vanilla Pound Cake
Key Points
• Chapter 5
– Begin at a high level to understand the skill
requirements of the job
• Chapter 7
– Analyzing routine work
– Analyze a complex job from the health care
• Chapter 10
– Standardized complex engineering tasks
Reading Lists
• Chapter 5
• Chapter 7
• Chapter 8
• Chapter 9
• Chapter 10