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Training & Development

Dr. S. Patil

• Definition:
– The action of teaching a person or animal a
particular skill or type of behaviour.

• Wikipedia:
– Training is teaching, or developing in oneself or
others, any skills and knowledge that relate to
specific useful competencies.
Training and Development
HRM defines T & D as a function concerned with
organizational activity aimed at bettering the job
performance of individuals and groups in organizational

“An educational process which involves the sharpening of

skills, concepts, changing of attitude and gaining more
knowledge to enhance the performance of employees".
Training Development

Improving the Preparing for future

knowledge, skills and responsibilities, while
attitudes of employees increasing the capacity to
for a particular / specific perform at a current job
job / task
– Employee orientation
– Management training
– Skills & technical training
– Supervisor development
– Coaching
– Counseling
• A learning process in which employees get an
opportunity to ‘be taught’ skill, competency and
knowledge as per the job requirement
• An educational process which is concerned with
the overall growth of the employees
Training Development
Aim Specific job related Conceptual and general

Objective To improve the work performances of To prepare employees for

the employees. future challenges.

Motivation Trainer Self

(External) (Internal or From Within

Focus Present Future

Term Short Term Long Term

Orientation Job oriented Career oriented

No. of people Many One

Organizational benefits
Improves the morale of the workforce.

Leads to a positive attitude

Improves the job knowledge and skills

Aids in organizational development

Improves relationship between superior and subordinate.

Leads to improve profitability

Less Chances of Accidents

Personal benefits
Helps in better decisions and effective problem solving ability

Achieving self-development and self-confidence.

Provides information for improving leadership, knowledge,

communication skills and attitudes.

Helps a person handle stress, tension, frustration and conflicts.

Helps a person develop speaking and listening skills.

Helps eliminate fear in attempting new tasks.

Principles of Learning

Principle of readiness

Principle of association

Principle of involvement

Principle of repetition

Principle of reinforcement
1. Environmental changes:

Mechanization, computerization, and automation.

2. Organizational complexity:

Modern inventions, technological changes and diversification

3. Human relations:

Good HR and PR

4. Change in the job assignment:

Promotion or transferred

5. To match employee specifications with the job requirements and

organizational needs
‘R’ for Training
• Readiness
• Repetition
• Reinforcement
• Recency
• Real Life
• Rejuvenation
Input and Output of Training
Training Process
Training Needs Assessment

Establish HRD priorities

Define Who, Why, What , Where, When


Establish Evaluation criteria

Training Need Analysis

Training Needs Analysis

Task Analysis Performance Analysis

Assessing Current Employees’ Training
Assessing New Employees’ Training Needs Needs
• Purpose • Meaningful Learning
• Place • Make learning easy
• Time
Methods for Assessing Training needs

Assessment Center Results Performance Appraisals

Individual Diaries Job-Related Performance

Methods for Data
Training Needs

Attitude Surveys Observations

Tests Interviews
Training Design

Define Goals

Finalize Objectives

Determine Methodology

Training Design



Restart the process

Conduct Training program
Program effectiveness determined

• Achievement of Goals?

• Training Methodology and


• Offer it again?

• Cost Benefit Analysis?

• Is there a better way?


Skill Training • Technical, Communication

Refresher • Short term

Cross Functional • Training in areas other than their
Training specialization

Training • Case Study based
• Out of box thinking
• Cross Cultural, Globalization

Literacy Training • Subject Oriented

Team Training • Team work and conflict resolution

Training Methodology
On the Job Off the Job

• Job Rotation • Case Study

• Role Play
• Job instruction
• Lectures
• Internship Training • Simulation
• Coaching • Business Games
• In-Basket exercise
• Committees
• Conferences
• Assignments • Incident
Distance and Internet-Based Training

Simulation Teletraining

Distance Learning

E-Learning and
APP Based
Learning Portals
Can you Train
Someone out of a

FOM 9.28