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Friday, April 26, 2019

Friday, April 26, 2019


Friday, April 26, 2019
Piping
• Introduction
 Assembly of pipe and fittings such as Tees, Elbows, Flanges, Reducer,
Bolting Gaskets, Valves & Others components.

 Fertilizers, Chemical and Petrochemical Plants, Refineries, Thermal


Power Stations. These are the major areas we have to do lot of piping works.

 Today, most of the piping systems are fully welded.

 They are frequently operating under high pressure, high temperature and in
corrosive atmosphere.

 Serious Consideration as has to be given in the selection of grades and


sizes of materials, design, fabrication, erection, testing and
inspection.
Friday, April 26, 2019
CODES
As per The American National Standards Institute ( ANSI )

• Pressure Piping ( ANSI B31 ).


• Power Plants ( ANSI B31.1 ).
• Chemical Plant and Petroleum refinery piping ( ANSI B31.3 ).
• Liquid transportation system for hydrocarbons, liquid petroleum Gas (
ANSI B31.4 ).
• Gas Transmission and distribution piping ( ANSI B31.8 ).

Friday, April 26, 2019


To ensure satisfactory welding of piping installation, we have to
establish and qualify the procedure, such as base metal specifications,
filler metals, edge preparation joint fit-up, pipe position, welding
process, process parameters welding techniques, preheat, inter-pass
post heat treatment, final inspection and testing. It also necessary to
qualify the welders for the welding process adopted.
Welding procedures and welders are normally qualified as per
section IX of the ASME Boiler & pressure vessel code.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Piping Materials
• The Materials used for piping are carbon steels, wrought iron, carbon moly,
Chrome moly, Cry Organic Steels, Stainless Steels, Aluminum & Its
Alloys, Copper and its alloy, titanium and its alloy.

• Many materials looks similar, leading to the possibility of mix-ups. To


prevent this, They are to be identified at multiple locations.

• Re-marking of the remaining materials. The identification should be done


either by colour bands and or by transferring the quality of the material and
heat mark by HARD PUNCHING.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Material Preparation
• The Materials preparation includes sizing and shaping by thermal cutting,
machining or grinding.

• Thermal cutting like Oxy-acetylene cutting or plasma cutting can lead to


hardening of cut edges of some materials. In such cases if required pre-heating
should be done during cutting.

• The cut edges should be free of cracks, notches, to remove adherent slag etc.

• The edges may be checked by Dye-Penetrant test to ensure soundness of the


materials.

Friday, April 26, 2019


NDT
• Material Identification.
• Fit-Up Inspection.
• Visual Inspection
(Before & After Completion of Welding).
• Dye-Penetrant Examination.
• Radiography.
• Ultrasonic Testing.
• Magnetic Particle Examination

Friday, April 26, 2019


Pressure Test
• Prior to critical operation, each piping system
shall be pressure tested to ensure leak
tightness.
• The Pressure test should be maintained for a
sufficient time, not less than ten minutes, to
determine if there are any leaks.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Test Preparation
• All joints, including welds are to be left uninsulated and exposed for examination
during test.

• Piping designed for vapor or gas shall be provided with additional temporary
supports, if necessary to support the weight of the liquid.

• If a pressure test is to be maintained for a period of time and the test liquid in the
system is subjected to thermal expansion, precautions should be taken to avoid
excessive pressure.

• Pressure shall be increased gradually in steps providing sufficient time to allow the
piping to equalize strains during test and then check the leaks.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Piping Fabrication & Erection

• Fertilizers, Chemical and Petro-Chemical Plants


Refineries, Thermal Power Stations - These are the
major areas where we have to do lot of piping works.

• Piping, in these Projects can be broadly divided as in


plant piping and offsite piping.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Plant Piping
• Plant piping or unit piping are the piping within the plant battery
limits.

• Interconnection of pipe lines between various static and rotary


equipment's.

• Number of joints per pipe length are more in unit piping.

• These can be done with help of ISO metric drawing ( ISO drawing
).

Friday, April 26, 2019


Offsite Piping
• Offsite piping are generally on racks or sleepers outside the battery limit of the
plant.

• These pipe lines are generally carrying feed stock to the plant, final product
from the plant to the storage area and utility lines such as Steam, Water, Air,
Nitrogen etc.

• Number of joints are less when compare to unit piping since straight length and
less tapping.

• These can be done with help of general arrangement drawing ( GA drawing ) or


plan drawing.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Planing
Piping Job Executing
 Find out the type of piping work to undertake - off site or unit piping. If both are
involved clearly identify these two and separate them out.
 Broadly divide them based on the materials ( i.e. Carbon Steel, Alloy Steel & Stainless
Steel ).
We may then further break it up based on the dia sizes and group them as
Up to and including - 1 1/2”.
2” - 6”
8” - 12”
14” and Above.
For the sizes up to 1 1/2” we consider them as small bore piping. In general this
piping has to be carried out as per site condition based on plan drawings and P & ID
diagrams.
Site sketches can be made prior to starting.
If the client insists we can get the ISO metric prepared at site and get approved.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Piping Job Executing
• 2” and above are known as big bore piping.

In plant piping about 60% of the joints can be welded at shop balance 40% to be
assembled and welded at site during erection, while doing this we may keep some
allowances in lengths for adjustment. Field joints are to be determined prior to shop
fabrication.
Now follow the norms(Refer Sheet No 25 to 30) and find out the number of joints in
each categories and the Labour required for the job.
We now have got a fairly good idea about the work volume and Labour strength
required for the job. These data's are good enough to find out the consumables
required, P&M to be deployed and the staff requirement.
Now based on the front availability, which can be obtained from the material delivery
schedule, we can make out an overall construction plan in consultation with client’s
engineer.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Major activities involved in Piping

• Pre-Fabrication
• Erection
• Alignment & Supporting
• Mechanical Clearance
• NDT Clearance
• Hydraulic Test / Pressure Testing
• Drying and Box-Up
Friday, April 26, 2019
Pre-Fabrication
• This can be generally at a pre-fabrication shop.
• We may have to fabricate some pipe specials also at Fab-Shop. These are
Miter Bends, Reducer, Tee branches etc.
• We have to keep erection allowances for field joints.
• As per as possible, flanges which are to be hooked up to equipment's, are not
to be welded. They can be kept on tacked condition.
• After the fabrication, keep the fabricated spools properly numbered and store
in place where it can be easily located for erection. These spools properly
stacked area wise or plant wise.
• Always keep the ends covered to avoid dirt and other particles to go inside.
• Field joints are to be selected in such a way to have easy accessibility for
welding.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Erection
• Rack Lines to be erected in advance.
• We must follow certain sequence of erection to avoid fouling.
• Start always with bigger pipes as per as possible.
• Avoid giving the load on equipment's while erecting the
pipelines. Give at least temporary support if not permanent one
so that the load is transferred.
• Start Small bore piping only when substantial amount of
pipelines and equipment's are in position.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Alignment & Supporting
• We have to always follow the specification for selection of
supports. Take at most care to follow what is specified in the
drawings and maintain elevation, slopes etc. as per drawings.
• It is very important that some time we may even have to do re-
work if the slopes are not coming alright.
• When we used spring support follow the instructions of the
manufactures carefully.
• For small bore piping in case required we may have to provide
additional support so that to keep the line straight.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Mechanical & NDT Clearance
• Final check to ensure whether that piping is laid as per the drawings,
specification and P&I diagrams. This is to be obtained and from the
inspection agency at site/clients.
• NDT clearance is to be obtained from the welding/quality control
department. This ensure completion of radiography, ultrasonic inspection on
all the required. Non-destructive test as per the code. This department ensure
the quality of the job. Weld joints details and SR details are also verified by
them prior to release of the job for hydraulic tests.

Hydro / Pressure Test


The test pressure generally is 1.5-2.0 times depends on the service
requirement as specified we have to follow the specification for test pressure.
Refer Page No. : 8

Friday, April 26, 2019


Box - Up
• After completion of hydraulic testing the lines for to be blown
with dry air and box it up to the right position.
• We might have put blind spades etc, in line or dropped control
valves during testing operation. This has to be re-installed to
the original position.
• We may have to replace if any temporary stud bolt, gaskets
were used.
• Box up is final operation and lines are to be handed over to
operation people subsequently.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Cost Control
• Efficient and systematic monitoring and control of costs is necessary for effective
management of any project.
• Stages of controls are :
1. Fixing of norms.
2. Estimating of the job.
3. Monitoring.
4. Feed back.

• Cost is classified as direct cost and indirect cost, direct cost comprises of direct
Labour, consumables, supervision and P&M and is related to quantum of work
included.
• Indirect cost is related to volume of work and time span.
• In normal case, direct cost is directly proportional to the work quantum. Due to site
conditions the Labour, supervision cost shall increase, but consumable cost cab be
controlled by monitoring.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Cost Control - Tips
• Prior to start the actual execution of the job, the total cost must be calculated.
• Labour details are to be worked out.
• Right type of the plant and machinery's required for piping quantity and the
period at which these are to be deployed are to be decided.
• Consumable required for the job are to be established. The monthly requirement
of consumable can be detailed out.
• Proper persons to be earmarked for key posts like planning, materials, billing,
quality control & site supervision. The roll of each staff is to be clearly
identified.
• The quantity to be pre-fabricated is to be established. Welding expenses at shop
will be always less, so we should try to do maximum shop fabrication.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Cost Control -Tips
• The planning dept. has play key-roll. The labour strength, machineries & tool
required and the inventory at stores for consumables and spares are to be closely
monitored based on the planning schedule.
• The material stores are to be well organised so that locating a materials will be
easier and there will not be any time loss. Also material control system has to be
fool-proof to avoid last minute running around.
• If we establish the required quality standard at the beginning of the job itself, the
work will go smoothly without any problems in repairs or rectification at latter
stage. Each individual at site will be aware of what is the required quality
standard and they will be streamlined automatically, If we are strict at the initial
days.
• Always productivity norms and consumables norms are to be monitored so that
we can easily correct if the job turns in the wrong direction.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Cost Control - Tips
• It is always important to use the right type of machines for the right job.
For small job, using high capacity machines should be avoided.
• The site supervisor must be always alert to control any wastage of materials
or misuse of tools and machinery's.
• As for as possible, the work distribution to piping supervisors should be
made area wise. The job should clearly defined and supervisors should be
aware of their responsibility.
• To help effective cost control all field supervisors should involve
themselves in monitoring the consumable consumption. It is necessary to
have periodically review of the cost at regular intervals where all site staff
can participate.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Piping Estimation norms for Manpowe
• Joint Ratio
Size For Plant Piping For offsite Piping
Up to Dia 1 1/2” 1 JT / MTR 1 JT / 2 MTR.
Dia 2” - 6” 1 JT / 1.5 MTR 1 JT / 4 MTR.
Dia 8” - 12” 1 JT / 2 MTR 1 JT / 4 MTR
Dia 14” & Above 1 JT / 2.5 MTR 1 JT / 4 MTR.

• Productivity of Welders

Up to Dia 1 1/2” 10 ID / WD 12 ID / WD.


Dia 2” - 6” 12 ID / WD 18 ID / WD.
Dia 8” - 12” 18 ID / WD 20 ID / WD.
Dia 14” & Above 20 ID / WD 22 ID / WD.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Crew Composition for Plant Piping
• Fabrication & Erection
Up to Dia 1 1/2” - Welder- 1
Fabricator - 1
Fitter - 1
Rigger - 1
Khalasi - 1
Helper - 3
Total - 8

Friday, April 26, 2019


Dia 2” & Above
Category Prefab.Erection Fab./ Erection
Welder 2 1 1
Fitter/Fabricator 1 2 2
Gas Cutter / Grinder 1 1 1
Rigger 2 3 3
Helper/khalasi4 5 5
Total 10 12 12
Note : 1. The above norms are for piping upto 10 mm wall thickness.
2. For Thickness upto 22 mm increase the manpower by 1.3 times.
3. For Thickness above 22 mm increase the manpower by 1.7 times.
4. For offsite piping, the crew composition shall be as plant piping for
small bore piping, but the crew big bore piping shall be the same as shown for
erection of plant piping.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Major Consumable norms
• Electrodes :
Thickness Electrode / ID
12 SWG10 SWG8 SWG
4 - 7 mm 2 2 -
8 - 10 mm 2 3 -
11 - 15 mm 2 4 4
16 - 22 mm 2 6 8
23 - 32 mm 2 10 10
32 - 40 mm 2 12 12
SW for small bore piping 2

Friday, April 26, 2019


Major Consumable norms
• Gas
Oxygen 25 ID per Cum.
DA 70 ID per Cum.
• Grinding Wheel
Grinding Wheel ( Cut off ) 1/8” * 7” - 50 ID/Disc.
Grinding Disc 3/8” * 7” - 100 ID/Disc.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Major Consumable norms
• Argon Gas :
With out purging - 16 ID/Cum.
With purging - 10 ID/Cum.
• Filler Wire :
Carbon Steel Filler Wire ( Root ) - 120 ID/Kg.
Stainless Steel Filler Wire ( Root )- 80 ID/Kg.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Fabrication Detail
• Reducer Fabrication
A B
Bottom
To Find out complete depth of Cone
Let BD = X
Radius of Base X Depth of Fustum Cone
X= X
Radius of Base - Radius of Top Y C
E Top

AB X BC
= AB - CE Z

Friday, April 26, 2019


Fabrication Detail
• Reducer Fabrication
A B
Bottom
To Find out complete slant height of Cone

Let AD = Y
2 2
Y= Complete Height Radius X
of Cone + of Base Y
E
C
Top

2 2 Z
=
BD + AB

Friday, April 26, 2019


Fabrication Detail
• Reducer Fabrication
A B
Bottom
To Find out ‘ Z ’
Let DE = Z
Radius of Top X Slant Height of Complete Cone
Z= X
Y C
Radius of Base E Top

CE X AD
= AB Z

Friday, April 26, 2019


Mitered Bend Fabrication
Five pieces, four weld miter 900 Miter
For Example :
OD of the Pipe = 1849, Radius = 2774
Top
Cut out

Middle = Radius X Tangent X 2


90
= 2774 X Tan X 2 ( Both Side )
8
= 1103.6 CL CL
Middle
Cut out = OD X Tangent
90
= 1849 X Tan
8
= 367.78 ( Both side )

Bottom = Middle - Cut out Top = Middle + Cut out Bottom


= 1103.6 - 367.78 = 1103.6 + 367.78
= 735.81 = 1471.4

Friday, April 26, 2019


Gas Cutting
• In site, we normally use acetylene.
• Acetylene gas is expenses.
• Indane gas can be used inplace of acetylene.
• While using indane gas a suitable adapter for industrial use should be
fitted on the cylinder

Plate Thk. Nozzle Size Cutting Pressure


Up to 25 mm 3/64 1.4 to 3 Kg/Cm2
26 mm to 75 mm 3/64 4 Kg/Cm2
100 mm to 150 mm 3/64 5 to 5.5 Kg/Cm2
Note : Acetylene pressure should be set in all cases at
0.15 Kg/Cm2 cutting pressure.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Gas Cutting
• The safety cap of the cylinder should not be removed
during transportation.
• The acetylene cylinder should be kept vertical while in
use to avoid wastage of acetone.
• The cutting nozzles are different for different gases.
• The nozzle marked ‘B’ should be used for indane.
• The nozzle marked ‘A’ for acetylene.
• Up to 32 mm indane gas can be used.
• To avoid excess consumption of gases to use correct
size nozzle.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Gas Cutting
• The following safety precaution to be taken during handling of
gas cylinder
1. Cylinder should not be allowed to drop or strike against each other.
Acetylene cylinder must be handled with more care.
2. Cylinder should be unloaded directly wherever possible on the
raised platform by rolling over a coir mattress. If a suitable raised
platforms not available slide down each cylinder over heavy
reinforced 15 cm thick coir mattress of about 2 mtrs * 1 mtr.
3. Lifting magnets should never be used for loading or unloading
cylinder.
4. Empty & filled cylinder should be stored separately & in well
ventilated areas.
5. Cylinder should never be stored in battery room or any room
containing inflammable fluids.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Welding Processes Addressed in ASME Section IX
• 1. OFW - Oxyfuel Gas Welding.
• 2. SMAW- Shielded Metal Arc Welding.
• 3. SAW - Submerged Arc Welding.
• 4. GMAW - Gas Metal Arc Welding.
• 5. FCAW - Flux Cored Arc Welding.
• 6. GTAW - Gas Tungsten Arc Welding.
• 7. PAW - Plasma Arc Welding.
• 8. ESW - Electro Slag Welding.
• 9. EGW - Electron Beam Welding.
• 10. EBW - Electron Beam Welding.
• 11. - Stud Welding.
Most Commonly used Processes:
1. SMAW 2. GTAW 3. SAW 4. GMAW
Friday, April 26, 2019
Weld Quality

In production welding WELD QUALITY is relative i.e.


Application determines what is GOOD and BAD.

QUALITY ASSURANCE :
- Ascertain degree of quality required by the application.
- Standard to be established based on service needs and
considering.
* Engineering Performance.
* Safety Factor.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Quality Control
- Make sure the sat standards are following :
The ‘5’ P’S that Assure Quality.
1. Process Selection - The process must be right for the job.
2. Preparation - The joint configuration must be right and
compatible with the welding process.
3. Procedures - To assure uniform results the procedure
must be spelled out in detail and followed
religiously during welding.
4. Pre-Testing - By full scale mock ups the process and
procedures are proved to give desired
standard of quality.
5. Personnel - Qualified people must be assigned to the job.
Friday, April 26, 2019
INSPECTION
• At Fit-Up
1. Dimensions of components to be joined.
2. Material Specification of base metal.
3. Joint preparation :
A. ‘V’ Angle
B. Root Face
C. Root Gap
4. Edge Cleaning.
5. Joint Tacking.
A. Direct
B. Bridges
6. Stiffening.
7. Pre - Heating.
Friday, April 26, 2019
INSPECTION
• During Welding
1. Use of right WPS
2. Use of qualified welders.
3. Use of right welding rod.
4. Baking of electrodes.
5. Pre - Heating.
6. Arc strikes.
7. Inter pass cleaning / Temperature.
8. Weaving.
9. Removal of wedges / cleats.
10. Groove after back gouge ( If applicable ).
Friday, April 26, 2019
WELD DEFECTS
• ARC STRIKES
• UNDER CUT
• POROSITY
• SLAG INCLUSION
• TUNGSTEN INCLUSION
• CRACKS
• CRATER CRACKS
• INCOMPLETE FUSION
• INADEQUATE PENETRATION
• CONCAVE ROOT SURFACE
• DROP THROUGH
• MISMATCH
Friday, April 26, 2019
Definition
UNDER CUTTING
Undercutting is defined as a groove metled into the base metal
adjacent to the toe or root of weld and left untilled by weld metal.
POROSITY
Porosity is defined as gas trapped by solidifying weld metal before
the gas a chance to rise to the surface of the molten puddle and
escape.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Definition
SLAG INCLUSIONS
A nonmetallic solid entrapped in between the weld metal and the pipe
metal.
INCOMPLETE FUSION
Discontinuing between the weld metal and the base metal that is open
the surface.
BURN - THROUGH
A portion of the root bead where excessive penetration has caused the
weld puddle to be blown into the pipe.

Friday, April 26, 2019


ISO Series

• What is ISO ?
A set of guidelines to effectively manage the
important activities in an Organization.

• ISO 9000 :
Quality management and Quality Assurance
standards guidelines for use.
Friday, April 26, 2019
ISO Series
• ISO 9001 :
Quality Assurance in design, development, production, installation &
servicing.

• ISO 9002 :
Quality Assurance in Production and installation.

• ISO 9003 :
Quality Assurance in final inspection and testing.

• ISO 9004 :
Quality Management and Quality system elements guidelines.
Friday, April 26, 2019
ISO Series

• Why implement ISO 9000 ?


– Requirement for export / tender to EU ( European
Union ) & many other countries.
– Is becoming a requirement for suppliers to large
company.
– Is an effective marketing.
– Edge over competition.
– Formal bench mark to improve effectiveness.

Friday, April 26, 2019


20 Elements of ISO 9001
1. Management responsibility. 12. Inspection & Test status.
2. Quality system. 13. Control of Non-conforming product.
3. Contract review.
14. Corrective & Preventive action.
4. Design control.
5. Document and Data control. 15. Handling, Storage, Packaging, Preservation
6. Purchasing & Delivery.
7. Control of customer supplied 16. Control of Quality records.
product.
17. Internal Quality audits.
8. Product identification and
Traceability. 18. Training.
9. Process control. 19. Servicing.
10. Inspection and Testing. 20. Statistical techniques.
11. Control of inspection, measuring
& Test equipment.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Materials
Carbon Steel :
Carbon Steel is and alloy of iron, Carbon and manganese. Additional alloying
elements may be added to steel to improve its physical properties.
Carbon Steel is classified as :
1. Mild Steel - C < 0.3 %
2. Medium Carbon Steel - C = 0.3% to 0.6%
3. High Carbon Steel - C = 0.6% to 1.7%

Mild steel, we are using for fabrication :


Medium Carbon steel are used for mechanical components like shafts, axles,
gears etc.
High carbon steel are used for making cutting tools.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Standards :
Materials
1. IS : 226 - Structural Steel ( Standard Quality ).
2. IS : 961 - Structural Steel ( High Tensile ).
3. IS : 2062 - Structural Steel ( Fusion Quality ).
4. IS : 1977 - Structural Steel ( Ordinary Quality ).
5. IS : 808 - Rolled Beam, Channel and Angle Section.
6. IS : 2002, 2100 - Boiler Quality Plate.
7. IS : 3039 - Ship Building Quality Steel.
8. IS : 814 - Structural Steel Fabrication.
9. IS : 816 - Structural Welding.
10. IS : 813 - Welding Symbol.
11. IS : 1367 - Steel Fastener.
12. IS : 3757 - High Strength Stud Bolt.
13. IS : 4000 - High Strength Friction Grip Bolt.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Boiler
• “ Boiler ” means any closed vessel exceeding 22.75 Ltrs ( 5 Gallons ) in
capacity which is used expressly for generating steam under pressure and
includes any mounting of other fittings attach to such vessel which is wholly
or partly under pressure when steam is shut off. ( 1 Gallon = 4.55 Ltrs ).

• “ Steam Pipe ” means any pipe through which steam passes from a boiler to a
prime-mover or other user of both if

1. The pressure at which steam passes through such pipe exceeds


3.5 Kg/Cm2. Above atmospheric pressure or
2. Such pipe exceeds 254 mm in internal diameter, and includes in
either case any connected fittings of steam pipe.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Materials
Stainless Steel :
Fe + Cr, Iron + Chromium 11.5 % or more Simply, it is an alloy
composed iron ( Fe ) and Chromium ( Cr ). Iron is the main
element off all stainless steels. To make iron “Stainless”,
however, chromium must add at least 11.5% of alloy.
What is effect of Chromium ?
When 11.5% or more chromium is added to iron, a thin, silvery,
tightly adherent film of chromium-oxide forms spontaneously
on the surfaces exposed to air. In short, the steel cannot easily be
stained, hence the name STAINLESS STEEL.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Materials
Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steels :
1. Increases Corrosion Resistance.
2. Reduces Heat Conductivity.
3. Increases Impact Values.
4. Increases Ductility.
5. Increases Fatigue Resistance.
6. Increases Electrical Resistance.
7. Improves Weldability.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Materials
Effect of Molybdenum :
1. Increases creep resistance at elevated temperatures.
2. Increases resistance to pitting in corrosion applications. Pitting
can occur in type 304 when certain corrosive liquids ( sea
water for example ) slosh about alternately wetting and exposing
the surface to air.

Classification of stainless electrodes :


The American Welding Society and the American Society for
Testing Materials have established series designation which is used as
a standard method of identifying stainless electrodes. The first three
digits indicate the composition of the electrode and the last two,
separated by a dash, indicate the type of coating.
Friday, April 26, 2019
Materials
Coating Designations :
The final two numbers indicating type of coating automatically
determine the type of welding current to use. The suffice “16 ” designates
the electrodes as titania-coated and these rods can deposited AC or DC
reverse polarity. Lime-type coatings are indicated by the suffice “ 15 ”
and these rods must be welded DC, reverse polarity.

Function of the Coating :


1. Its shields the arc. As the coating melts it also forms a gas
( Co2 ) which surrounds and insulates the molten puddle from the air
which prevents the formation of oxides and the detrimental pick-
up of hydrogen and nitrogen.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Materials
Function of the Coating :

2. It forms a slag to protect the weld surface from oxide


formations during cooling.
3. It improves arc smoothness and promotes stability.
Properly- designed coatings melt just a shade slower than
the electrode itself, forming a small crucible to facilitate arc
control and direction.
4. It controls the form of the ripples, the shape of the bead
and the length of the arc.
5. It indicates to some extent the current range of the
electrode as well as the deposition rate.

Friday, April 26, 2019


Welding length calculation
Let :-
L1 - Heel side welding length.
L2 - Toe side welding length.
X- Section of Angle.
Y- CG of Angle. Heel Side
L- Load ( Given in Plan Drawing ).
L1
C- Constant - 1.2.
W- Size of Weld. Y

L X-Y X
L1 = X + C
W X

L Y L2
L2 = X + C
W X Toe Side
Size of Weld Shop Site Weld
6 mm 0.462 T/Cm 0.369 T/Cm
8 mm 0.616 T/Cm 0.492 T/Cm
10 mm 0.770 T/Cm 0.616 T/Cm
12 mm 0.924 T/Cm -
Friday, April 26, 2019
No. of Electrodes / Kg.
Sr. Electrodes Size No. of Sr. Electrodes Size No. of
No. Pieces/Kg. No. Pieces/Kg.

1. E 6010 2.50 mm 72 16. E 309L-16 3.15 mm 30


2. E 6010 3.20 mm 38 17. E 309L-16 2.50 mm 45
3. E 6013 2.50 mm 56 18. E 316L-16 3.15 mm 28
4. E 6013 3.15 mm 28
5. E 6013 4.00 mm 16 Filler Wire :
6. E 7018 2.50 mm 43 1. Brazing Rod 1.60 mm 120
7. E 7018 3.15 mm 23 2. ER NICR-3 2.40 mm 26
8. E 7018 4.00 mm 15 3. ER 70 S2-1 2.00 mm 41
9. E 7018-1 2.5 mm 40 4. ER 70 S2-1 2.40 mm 28
10. E 7018-1 3.15 mm 25 5. ER 80 S2-1 1.60 mm 16
11. E 7018-1 4.00 mm 19 6. ER309L 2.40 mm 64
12. E 8018-B2 2.50 mm 43 7. ER80SB2 2.40 mm 26
13. E 8018-B2 3.15 mm 23 8. ER316L 2.40 mm 26
14. E 8018-B2 4.00 mm 19 9. 309 L 2.40 mm 25
15. E 309L-16 2.50 mm 43 10. 308 H 2.40 mm 26
Friday, April 26, 2019