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Objectives of Communication

Information Advice Order

Suggestion Persuasion Education

Warning Raising Morale Motivation

Required for planning, organizing, executing and translation into results.
Types of Information:

Information for
External: Internal:
• Availability of credit • Job Assignment- • Environmental
• Availability of raw choosing the right Information- Macro
material man for the right Issues.
• Govt. rules and job. • Internal Info-
regulations • Status of Executives Production and Sale
• Products and Decision Making Capacity, Employee
Powers. Information
• Advertising
• Policies and • Competitive
• Latest advancement
Activities of the Information.
in product planning
Organization. • Analysis of our
and consumer
behaviour product
Sources Of Information
Old Files- look back & move forward
Observation- personnel issues
Information over mass media
Library Research
Chambers of Commerce
Meetings, Seminars and Conferences
Personal Interviews
Market Surveys
Trade fairs and exhibitions
Current electronic media

Validation of information essential before any transmission/ use:

Reliability Accuracy Vintage Complete

 While information is objective in nature, advice is
subjective since it involves the personal element
 Normally given to influence opinion/ behaviour.
 Always a double edged weapon.
 Executives need expert advice frequently

Flow of advice:
• top to bottom

• horizontal
Effective Advice

Man oriented and

Special effort not Given in workers
work oriented-
to make a person and organization
feel inferior. interest.

Potential of
Promotes better
becoming a two
way traffic.
Two types:

• Professional
• Behavioural

Both important in a management scenario

Rendered by specialists.

Counselors, unlike advisors, do not provide


Solutions taken out from the counselee.

Process of Counseling

Identification Monitoring
of problem Eliciting the effectiveness
Regular session with
through solution of counseling
counselor main
interaction and from the done
interaction. problem in
reading subject. through
signals. observation
Directive to a subordinate to do something in a particular way.

Orders move downward.

Types of orders:

• Written or oral
• General or specific
• Procedural or operational
• Mandatory or discretionary

Characteristics of effective order:

• Clear and complete.

• Capable of being completed both in volume and time.
• Tone of orders.
Logical Sequence: Order
giving operation
• Expected action
• Feasibility
• Individual tasking
• Time frame
• Expected bottlenecks and suggested solution
• Type of order

Prepare the receiver

Presentation of the order
Verification of reaction
Follow up
Instruction is an order with guidance how to do.

Orders are not instructions but all instructions are implied orders.

Enjoy greater advantage over order/ advice.

A more mild and subtle form of communication.

Vertical and horizontal flow.

Accepted form of flow from top to bottom.

Bottom to top should be welcome.

Provision for receiving suggestions by management:

• Suggestions box
• Group interaction
 Effort to influence the attitudes, feelings or belief of others
OR influence actions based on those attitudes, feelings and
 Art of persuasion:

Indirect hints and subtle

Requires conviction that suggestions in effort of
action suggested in the channelizing thinking to
interest of the receiver. arrive at desired solution.
Do not impose.

Obstinate receiver-
concede initially then bring Think from the point of
him to channelization view of the receiver.
Steps of Persuasion
• The need for persuasion
• Advantages/ disadvantages of new course of action
Analysis of • Thinking process of the receiver
the situation:

• Put receiver in a pleasant frame of mind.

• Appeal to adaptability and open mindedness.
Preparing the • Points of agreement to be mentioned first to create common meeting ground.
receiver: • Discuss from the receiver’s point of view.

• Step by logical step delivery.

• Forceful arguments.
Delivering • Delay presentation of unpleasant part.
the message:

• Logical consummation of first three steps.

Prompting • Ensure desired course of action.
 A conscious process over a period of time to widen
knowledge, improve skills and bring about positive
behavioural changes.
 Carried out at three levels:

Education of management-
Education of employees- adopted
innovations through books,
innovations through talks,
seminars, lectures, case studies,
demonstrations, bulletins.
study tours.

Education of outside public- new

products, relative merits vis-à-vis
competition, comparative prices,
concessions/ discounts through

Special performance related activity reserved for violators of norms, rules and
regulations, negligence, defiance, punctuality, causing loss, pilfering, rumour
mongering, etc.

It is forceful communication demanding immediate corrective action.

Types of warning

• In the form of notices


• To individual for violation.

Also, termed as reprimand/ performance counseling:

• Should be administered in person.

• A form of disciplinary action.
• Given after due investigation/ thought.
• Always in organizational interest and not personal prejudice.
 Mental health and zeal to excel through courage,
fortitude, resolve and confidence.
 Related to high performance.
 Essential for team building.
Factors for creating high morale

Caliber based task Appropriate Importance of Encourage

allocation appreciation work and self suggestions

Congenial working Constructive Prompt redressal

atmosphere attitude of grievances
 Emerging and activating the team to work willingly at
times beyond call of duty for attainment of desired goals.

Effective motivation:

Participation in Specific goal

Monetary incentive
decision making achievement

Security and
congenial work