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BY

SAIRA SONAM ,SEHAR YASMEEN,BUSHRA,NAILA,HUMAIRA


AND MUHAMMAD JAVED
M.S APPLIED LINGUISTICS 2018
DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
THE SCHOOL OF SOCIAL SCIENCES AND LITERATURE
UMT SIALKOT.
SSUBMI
1.2
 ESP is a term that refers to teaching or
studying English for a particular career (like
law, medicine) or for business in general .
 As with most developments in human
activity ESP was not planned and coherent
movement but rather a phenomenon that
grew out of a number of converging trends.
 Coffey (1985) observes that ESP is “a quick
and economical use of the English language
to pursue a course of academic study (EAP) or
effectiveness in paid employment (EOP)”.
 Lorenzo (2005) reminds us that ESP
“concentrates more on language in context
than on teaching grammar and language
structures”.
Carter (1983) believes that self-direction is
important in the sense that an ESP course is
concerned with turning learners into users of
the language.
 The Birth of ESP Hutchinson and Waters
(1987) show a long-term retrospective view
on causes resulting in the birth of E.S.P.,
when they present nearly the same factors,
which, in turn, suggest a cause effect
relationship the enormous and
unprecedented expansion in scientific,
technical and economic activity on an
international scale.
 The need for several countries to update their
knowledge. Therefore, E.S.P. came into being and
gradually developed into a multilayered language
approach primarily based on learners’ specific
needs required by their professions or
occupations. The domain labeled E.S.P. was
proven to have a universal dimension through
the concept of language for specific purposes
and a language-specific perspective through the
insights explored into various European
languages.
 • In the 1960s, ESP practitioners believed
their main job was to teach the technical
vocabulary of a given field or profession.
• In 1970s, Hutchinson and Waters first
introduced the idea of learning English
through content of a subject
• By the 1980s, in many parts of the world, a
needs-based philosophy appeared in
language teaching
 krashen in 1981 came up with “natural
language acquisition idea” which then
supports the ESP approach. It is said that the
best way in learning a language is to use it
for meaningful aims. Various Application of
ESP 1. Content and Language Integrated
Learning or CLIL is an approach for learning
content through an additional language
(foreign or second), thus teaching both the
subject and the language.
 2. Content-based Instruction or CBI is designed
to provide second-language learners instruction
in the use of subject matter as a vehicle for
second or foreign language teaching/learning
(content) and language.
3. Task-based Language Teaching or TBLT
focuses on the use of authentic language and on
asking students to do meaningful tasks using the
target language. PHASES IN THE DEVELOPMENT
OF ESP (Hutchinson and Waters)
 1. Register Analysis Aims to identify lexical and
grammatical features of registers. The teaching
materials focused on these linguistic features
which represented the syllabus. The criticisms
against register analysis were: • It restricts the
analysis of text to the word and sentence level •
It is only descriptive, not explanatory • Most
materials produced under the banner of register
analysis follow a similar pattern, beginning with a
long specialist reading passage which lacks
authenticity.
 2. Rhetorical and Discourse Analysis The
1980s recorded a step ahead in the approach
to ESP. The priorities, for this decade, mean:
• understanding how sentences were
combined in discourse to produce meaning
• To identify the organizational patterns in
texts
• To specify the linguistic means by which
these patterns are signaled. All these patterns
represented the syllabus.
 3. Target situation analysis The target situation
analysis is also known as the learner-centered
approach. In this phase, ESP was based on the
reasons why student learn English. The purpose
of an E.S.P. course focused on target situation
analysis is:
• to enable learners to function adequately in a
target situation, that is the situation in which the
learners will use the language they are learning
• to identify the target situation
• to carry out a rigorous analysis of its linguistic
features
 4. Analysis of study skills and strategies The principal idea
behind the skills-centered approach is that underlying all
language use. There are common reasoning and
interpreting processes which enable learners to extract
meaning from discourse. The focus should be on the
underlying interpretive strategies which enable learners to
cope with the surface forms:
• guessing the meaning of words form context;
• using visual layout to determine the type of text;
• exploiting cognates (i.e., words which are similar in the
mother tongue and the target language) This approach
generally concentrates on reading and listening strategies,
the characteristic exercises get the learners to reflect on
and analyze how meaning is produced in and retrieved
from written or spoken discourse.
 5. Analysis of learning needs (a learning-
centered approach) It involves considering
the process of learning and student
motivation, working out what is needed to
enable students to reach the target,
exploiting in the EOP/EAP classroom skills
which students develop from their specific
academic study and taking into account the
fact that different students learn in different
ways.
 (a) Absolute Characteristics of ESP
ESP consists of English language teaching which
is:
-- designed to meet specific needs of the
learner; -- related in
content (i.e. In its theme and topics ) to
particular disciplines, occupations, and activities
-- centered on the language appropriate to those
activities, in syntax, lexis, discourse, semantics,
etc.; in contrast with ‘general education’.
 Variable Characteristics of ESP
ESP may be, but is not necessarily : restricted
as to the language skills to be learned (e.g.) ,
reading only ; speech recognition only, etc. )
Taught, according to any pre- ordained
methodology (i.e. , ESP is not restricted to any
particular methodology- although
communicative methodology is very often felt
to be the most appropriate).”
 Second language learning should reflect and
imitate the perceived processes of mother
tongue learning -Never translate. -New
language should always be dealt with in the
sequence: hear, speak, read, write. -Frequent
repetition is essential to effective learning. -
All errors must be immediately corrected.
1. Behaviorism: learning as habit formation.
 2. Mentalism: thinking as rule-governed
activity
Learning consists not of forming habits but of
acquiring rules – a process in which individual
experiences are used by the mind to formulate
a hypothesis.
 3. Cognitive code: learners as thinking
beings3. Cognitive code: learners as thinking
beings
takes the learner to be an active processor
of information
We (learners) learn by thinking about and
trying to make sense of what we see, feel, and
hear.
 4. The affective factor: learners emotional
beings the learners will learn easily when he
or she is actively thinking about of what they
are learning.
 5. Learning and acquisition • The conscious
and subconscious way of leaning.
 • Simulation:
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of
a real-world process or system over time.
• Pairs and small groups
• Requesting assistance from supervisor
• One to one teaching
• Team teaching ESP practitioner combines
with subject specialist
• Need for testing in ESP
• To decide for an appropriate grouping at the
beginning
• To diagnose learners’ specific linguistic
problems
• To evaluate how much has been learnt during
an English course
• To survey in general terms the language level
of a large group of professionals or academics
• To decide whether a particular individual has
sufficient language for a job, post or study place
 Need for testing in ESP • To measure
linguistic proficiency in relation to demand of
the a particular target situation • To fulfill an
institution’s or a company’ examination
requirements and expectations • To fulfill
learners’ expectation
• Direct testing:
• It would be able to assess whether a person
has sufficient English to carry out a job or
follow a course of specialist study. Language
test Study/job demand Language course
• Indirect testing
• It would assess the details of performance
on an English language course and
achievement of the learner. Need analysis
Language course Assessment of
achievements
• Dudley Evans describes the true ESP teacher
or ESP Practitioner (Swales, 1988) as needing
to perform five different roles.
These are:
• Teacher,
• Collaborator,
• Course designer and materials provider,
• Researcher
• Evaluator.
 As a teacher
• The first role as 'teacher'
is synonymous with that of
the General English'
teacher.
As a collaborator
• In order to meet the specific needs of the
learners and adopt the methodology and
activities of the target discipline, the ESP
Practitioner must first work closely with field
specialists.
 AS Course designer and materials provider
• The teacher`s role in planning the course
and providing materials for it.
• Provision of materials does not only mean
choosing materials and making a suitable
number of copies for the class
• the teacher `s task also includes adapting
material when published materials are
unsuitable or writing his or her own
materials.
 As researcher
• Non availability of the ready-made material
• It is here that the ESP practitioner's role as
'researcher' is especially important, with
results leading directly to appropriate
materials for the classroom.
• Training of the teachers is very important
for ESP courses.
• they should be trained and well specialized
so that they can meet students` needs.
 David Carver (1983) identifies of three types
of ESP:
1. English as a restricted language.
2. English for Academic and Occupational
Purposes.
3. English with specific topics.
 1. English as a restricted language
The language used by air traffic controllers or
by waiters are examples of English as a
restricted language (Mackay and Mountford;
1978).
 2. English for Academic and Occupational
Purposes (Carter; 1983)
In the ‘Three of ELT’ (Hutchinson & Waters,
1987), ESP is broken down into three branches:
1. English for Science and Technology (EST)
2. English for Business and Economics (EBE)
3. English for Social Studies (ESS) Each of these
subject areas is further divided into two
branches:
1. English for Academic Purposes (EAP)
2. English for Occupational Purposes (EOP)
 (English for Science and Technology (EST)
. An example of EOP for the EST branch is
‘English for Technicians’
. Whereas an example of EAP for the EST
branch is ‘English for Medical Studies’
 3. English with Specific Topics
Emphasis shifts from purpose to topics
It is uniquely concerned with anticipated
future English needs, for example, scientists
requiring English for postgraduate reading
studies, attending conferences or working in
foreign institutions.
This situational language has been
determined based on the interpretation of
results from needs analysis of authentic
language used in target workplace settings.
 LANGUAGE-CENTERED APPROACH
It is the simplest and more familiar kind to
English teachers.
It is particularly common in ESP.
It aims to draw as direct a connection as
possible between the analysis of the target
situation and the content of the ESP course
A language-centered approach says: this
the nature of the target situation performance
determines ESP course.
 Cont.... It has a number of weaknesses: I. it
might be considered a learner-centered approach
because it starts from the learners and their
needs but in reality its not learner-centered. The
learner is simply used as a means of identifying
the target situation. ii. The language-centered
process can also be criticized for being a static
and inflexible procedure. iii. The language-
centered analysis of target situation data is only
at the surface level. It reveals very little about the
competence that underlined the performance
 SKILLS-CENTERED APPROACH
This approach aimed to help learners for
developing skills and strategies which
continue after the ESP course by making
learners better processors of information.
A skills-centered approach says: we must
look behind target performance data to
discover what processes enable someone to
perform. Those processes will determine the
ESP course
 The skills-centered approach based on two
fundamental principles :
The basic theoretical hypothesis is that
underlying any language behavior are certain
skills and strategies, which the learner uses in
order to procedure.
The pragmatic basis for the skills-centered
approach derives from a distinction made by
Widdowson (1981) between goal-oriented
courses and process oriented courses.
 Needs analysis plays two roles in a skill-
centered approach:
It provides a basis for discovering the
essential competence that enables people to
perform in the target situation.
It enables the course designer to discover
the potential knowledge and abilities that the
learners bring to the ESP course
 3: Learning-Centered Approach
This approach is based on the principle that
learning is totally determined by the learner. As
teachers we can influence what we teach, but
what learners learn is determined by the learners
alone.
In this approach learning is seen as a process in
which the learners use what knowledge or skills
they have in order to make sense of the flow of
new information. Learning is not just a mental
process, it is a process of negotiation between
individuals and society.
 A learning-centered approach says:
We must look beyond the competence that
enables someone to perform, because what
we really want to discover is not the
competence itself, but how someone acquires
that competence
Language-centered approach concentrates
on performance.
Skills-centered approach concentrates on
competence
. Learning-centered approach concentrates
on how to get competence.