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MINOR PROJECT PRESENTATION

IES-IPS ACADEMY

A PROJECT ON PRODUCTION OF BIOGAS


BIODEGRADABLE WASTE IN COLLEGE
CAMPUS
INTRODUCTION
 Biogas is a clean environment friendly fuel that can be
obtained by anaerobic digestion of animal residues
and domestic and farm wastes, abundantly available in
the countryside.
 Methane is a clean energy one of the constituent of
biogas which has a great potential to be an alternative
fuel.
 The natural generation of biogas is an important part
of the biogeochemical carbon cycle. Methanogens
(methane producing bacteria) are the last link in a
chain of micro-organisms which degrade organic
material and return the decomposition products to the
environment.
 Average calorific value of biogas is 20 MJ/m3 (4713
kcal/m3).
Composition of Biogas

Carbon dioxide
(CO2): 25-55%
Other gases: 2-7%
Methane (CH4): N2 : 0 -5%
40-70% H2: 0-1%,
H2S: 0-3%

Biogas
PRODUCTION PROCESS

A typical biogas system consists of the following components:


(1) Manure collection
(2) Digestion (Aerobic & Anaerobic)
Biological process (microbiology)
1. Hydrolysis 2. Acidification 3. Methanogenesis

(3) Effluent storage


(4) Gas handling
(5) Gas use.
MICROBIOLOGY???
LITERATURE REVIEW
(1) Shalini singh et al.[1] (2000) studied the increased biogas production using
microbial stimulants. They studied the effect of microbial stimulant aquasan and
teresan on biogas yield from cattle dung and combined residue of cattle dung
and kitchen waste respectively. The result shows that dual addition of aquasan to
cattle dung on day 1 and day 15 increased the gas production by 55% over
unamended cattle dung and addition of teresan to cattle dung : kitchen waste
(1:1) mixed residue 15% increased gas production.

(2) ARTI_appropriate rural technology of India, pune (2003) has developed a


compact biogas plant which uses waste food rather than any cow dung as
feedstock, to supply biogas for cooking. The plant is sufficiently compact to be
used by urban households and about 2000 are currently in use – both in urban
and rural households in Maharashtra.
Dr. Anand Karve (ARTI) developed a compact biogas system that uses starchy or
sugary feedstock . Just 2 kg of such feedstock produces about 500 g of methane,
and the reaction is completed with 24 hours. The conventional biogas systems,
using cattle dung, sewerage, etc. use about 40 kg feedstock to produce the same
quantity of methane, and require about 40 days to complete the reaction.
(3) Hilkiah Igoni[4] (2008) studied the effect of Total Solids
Concentration of Municipal Solid Waste on the Biogas Produced in an
Anaerobic Continuous Digester. The total solids (TS) concentration of
the waste influences the pH, and effectiveness of the microorganisms
in the decomposition process. They investigated various
concentrations of the TS of MSW in an anaerobic continuously stirred
tank reactor (CSTR) and the corresponding amounts of biogas
produced, in order to determine conditions for optimum gas
production. The results show that when the percentage total solids
(PTS) of municipal solid waste in an anaerobic continuous digestions
process increases, there is a corresponding geometric increase for
biogas produced.
(4) Ravi P Agrahari and G N Tiwari[8] (2013) compared different ratios
of Kitchen Waste Under Aluminium Made Biogas Plant. Aluminium is
also better alternative on the basis of biogas production and also safe
for the environment because it can easily be disintegrated by
microorganisms but plastic creates a lot of environmental problem
due to its non-biodegradable nature. Black painted aluminium made
biogas plant will be the best alternative under community level biogas
production from kitchen waste.
SURVEY OF IPS CAMPUS
S.NO. PERTICULAR QUANTITY PER DAY IN KG

1 Canteen (40kg capacity 2 container) 15

2 Mess (As per 2000 meal plates per day ) 50

3 College floors & campus 50

4 Boy’s hostel (4 container) 13

5 Girls’ hostel (4 container) 13

6 IPS School + Architecture campus + Dispensary 2

7 Green grass waste (6 Quintal/month) 20

Total waste 163


UTILIZATION OF BIOGAS

• Cooking: Biogas can be used in a specially designed burner for cooking


purpose. A biogas plant of 2 cubic meters capacity is sufficient for
providing cooking fuel needs of a family of about five persons.
• Lighting: Biogas is used in silk mantle lamps for lighting purpose. The
requirement of gas for powering a 100 candle lamp (60 W) is 0.13
cubic meter per hour.
• Power Generation: Biogas can be used to operate a dual fuel engine
to replace up to 80 % of diesel-oil. Diesel engines have been modified
to run 100 per cent on biogas. Petrol and CNG engines can also be
modified easily to use biogas.
• Transport Fuel: After removal of CO2, H2S and water vapor, biogas can
be converted to natural gas quality for use in vehicles.
NEED FOR THE BIOGAS REFINING
AND BOTTLING:

 Potential of biogas is not fully utilized and commercialized so


far.

 For commercialization, its area of application may widen;


from cooking fuel to vehicle fuel.

 For use as a vehicle fuel, it should be bottled like CNG.

 Before bottling, it should enriched in methane content from


55% to 95%; similar to CNG.