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ETHICS

 the discipline relating to what is good or bad, right


or wrong, or with moral duty and obligation

 means a group or moral principles or set of values


relating to the conduct of an individual and his
profession

 like the word morals, is an activity and area of


inquiry
WHAT IS ENGINEERING ETHICS?
 ENGINEERING ETHICS IS:

1. The study of the moral issues and decisions


confronting individuals and obligations
engaged in engineering.

2. The study of related questions about the


morals ideals, character, policies and
relationships of people and corporations
involves in technological activity.
ENTRY OF THE ENGINEER TO THE
PROFESSION
An aspirant to practice engineering should observe his
relation to:

1. The general public


2. The profession and engineering society
3. The client and employer
4. with engineers
A. RELATIONSHIP TO THE GENERAL
PUBLIC
 The following acts are among those enjoined and must
be observed by an engineer.

 1. Avoid misinformation
 2. Avoidance of rendering opinions in
public on unverified engineering matters
 3. Guard against public health and safety
B. RELATIONSHIP TO THE PROFESSION
AND ENGINEERING SOCIETY
 1.Loyalty
 2. Identification with legitimate enterprise
 3. Continuous awareness of engineering
laws
 4. Avoid discussing engineering matters in
public
C. RELATIONSHIP TO CLIENT AND
EMPLOYER
 1. Protection to client or employer
 2. Quality and dedicated service
 3. Reasonable professional fees
 4. On commissions, rebates, percentage, etc.
D. RELATIONSHIP WITH
ENGINEERS
 1. Protection of fellow engineers
 2. Fairness and tolerance
 3. Merits not due
 4. Review of colleague’s work
 5. Controversies with colleague
 6. Solicitation of undertakings or clients
 7. Signing plans and specifications, etc.
WHY STUDY ENGINEERING
ETHICS?
 Engineering ethics course is not about preaching
virtues so that the immoral and moral will adopt
an established set of beliefs.

 It is a means to increase the ability of concerned


engineers to responsibly confront moral issues
raised by technological activity.

 It identifies a specific precedence with respect to


the engineer's consideration for the public, clients,
employers, and the profession.
MORAL DILEMMAS
 are situations in which two or more moral obligations,
duties, rights, goods or ideals come into conflict with
one another.

THREE SORTS OF COMPLEXITY AND MURKINESS


MAY BE INVOLVED IN MORAL SITUATIONS
1. There are problems of vagueness.
2. There are problems of conflicting reasons
3. There are problems of disagreement
STEPS IN CONFRONTING
MORAL DILEMMAS
 Identify the relevant moral factors and reasons
 Gather all available facts
 Rank the moral considerations in order of importance
as they apply to the situation
 Consider alternative courses of action
 Talk with colleagues, seek their suggestions and
alternative perspectives on the dilemma
 Arrive at a carefully reasoned judgment
PROFESSIONS
 Profession is used as a synonym for “JOB” or
occupation, and to be a professional at some activity
means merely to earn one’s living through it.

 Profession can be applied only to certain


occupations which meet the following special criteria:
1. Knowledge
2. Organization
3. Public good
ENGINEERING AS A PROFESSION:
a profession is any occupation that
provides a means by which to earn
a living.
Professions are those forms of work
involving advanced expertise, self
regulation, and concerted service
to the public good.
Engineering as an Ethical Profession
 What is a Profession?
 special expertise
 shared moral values
 dependent public
 self-regulation
 promote and protect right actions
 The responsibility to be ethical
 The right to be ethical
 Values embedded in technology
ETHICAL ISSUES
Whistleblowing
 A basic ethical dilemma is that an engineer has the
duty to report to the appropriate authority a possible
risk to others from a client or employer failing to follow
the engineer's directions. According to first principles,
this duty overrides the duty to a client and/or
employer
Other ethical issues
1. Relationships with clients, consultants, competitors,
and contractors
2. Ensuring legal compliance by clients, client's
contractors, and others
3. Conflict of interest
4. Bribery and kickbacks, which also may include:
 Gifts, meals, services, and entertainment
5. Treatment of confidential or proprietary information
6. Consideration of the employer’s assets
7. Outside employment/activities (Moonlighting)
Current ethical issues
 Currently, bribery and political corruption is being
addressed very directly by several professional
societies and business groups around the world.
However, new issues have arisen, such as offshoring,
sustainable development, and environmental
protection, that the profession is having to consider
and address.
Code of Ethics for Engineers
PREAMBLE
 Engineering is an important and learned profession. As
members of this profession, engineers are expected to
exhibit the highest standards of honesty and integrity.
Engineering has a direct and vital impact on the quality of
life for all people. Accordingly, the services provided by
engineers require honesty, impartiality,

 Fairness, and equity, and must be dedicated to the


protection of the public health, Safety and welfare.
Engineers must perform under a standard of professional
behavior that requires adherence to the highest principles
of ethical conduct.
I. Fundamental Canons
Engineers, in the fulfillment of their professional duties, shall:
1. Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public.
2. Perform services only in areas of their competence.
3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful
manner.
4. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.
5. Avoid deceptive acts.
6. Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and
lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and usefulness
of the profession.
II. Rules of Practice
 1. Engineers shall hold paramount the safety, health,
and welfare of the public.
 2. Engineers shall per form services only in the areas of
their competence.
 3. Engineers shall issue public statements only in an
objective and truthful manner.
 4. Engineers shall act for each employer or client as
faithful agents or trustees.
 5. Engineers shall avoid deceptive acts.
III. Professional Obligations
 1. Engineers shall be guided in all their relations by the
highest standards of honesty and integrity.

 2. Engineers shall at all times strive to serve the public


interest.

 3. Engineers shall avoid all conduct or practice that


deceives the public.

 4. Engineers shall not disclose, without consent,


confidential information concerning the business affairs or
technical processes of any present or former client or
employer, or public body on which they serve.
III. Professional Obligations
 5. Engineers shall not be influenced in their professional
duties by conflicting interests.

 6. Engineers shall not attempt to obtain employment or


advancement or professional engagements by untruthfully
criticizing other engineers, or by other improper or
questionable methods.

 7. Engineers shall not attempt to injure, maliciously or


falsely, directly or indirectly, the professional reputation,
prospects, practice, or employment of other engineers.
Engineers who believe others are guilty of unethical or
illegal practice shall present such information to the proper
authority for action.
III. Professional Obligations
 8. Engineers shall accept personal responsibility for their
professional activities, provided, however, that engineers
may seek indemnification for services arising out of their
practice for other than gross negligence, where the
engineer’s interests cannot otherwise be protected.

 9. Engineers shall give credit for engineering work to those


to whom credit is due, and will recognize the proprietary
interests of others.
The Fundamental Canons of
Engineering Ethics
Engineers, in the fulfillment of their
professional duties, shall:
1. Hold paramount the safety, health, and welfare of the public.
2. Perform services only in areas of their competence.
3. Issue public statements only in an objective and truthful
manner.
4. Act for each employer or client as faithful agents or trustees.
5. Avoid deceptive acts.
6. Conduct themselves honorably, responsibly, ethically, and
lawfully so as to enhance the honor, reputation, and usefulness
of the profession.
What are the engineers’
relationship to the public…
1.1 Will do whatever they can to promote the reliability
and safety of all products that come within my
jurisdiction.
1.2 Will endeavor to extend public knowledge of the
work of the Society and its members that relates to the
public welfare.
1.3 Will be dignified and modest in explaining my work
and merit.
1.4 Will preface any public statements that they may
issue by clearly indicating on whose behalf they are
made.
What are the engineers’ relation
with their client and employers…
2.1 Will act in professional matters as a faithful agent or
trustee for each employer or client.
2.2 Will inform each client or employer of any business
connections, interests, or affiliations which might
influence my judgment or impair the equitable
character of my services.
2.3 Will indicate to my employer or client the adverse
consequences to be expected if my professional
judgment is overruled.
2.4 Will not disclose information concerning the
business affairs or technical processes of any present or
former employer or client without his consent.
2.5 Will not accept compensation from more than one
party for the same service without the consent of all
parties. If employed, I will engage in supplementary
employment of consulting practice only with the
consent of my employer.
The relations with peers…
3.1 Will take care that credit for the work of others is
given to those whom it is due.
3.2 Will endeavor to aid the professional development
and advancement of those in my employ or under my
supervision.
3.3 Will not compete unfairly with others; will extend my
friendship and confidence to all associates and those
with whom I have business relations.