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Neuron Structure and Function

• Most of a neuron’s organelles are in the cell body


• Most neurons have dendrites, highly branched
extensions that receive signals from other neurons
• The axon is typically a much longer extension that
transmits signals to other cells at synapses
• The cone-shaped base of an axon is called the axon
hillock

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


• The synaptic terminal of one axon passes
information across the synapse in the form of
chemical messengers called neurotransmitters
• A synapse is a junction between an axon and another
cell

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Figure 48.4

Dendrites
Stimulus

Axon hillock
Nucleus

Cell
body
Presynaptic
cell Axon
Signal
direction
Synapse
Synaptic terminals
Synaptic
terminals

Postsynaptic cell
Neurotransmitter
• Sensors detect external stimuli and internal
conditions and transmit information along sensory
neurons
• Sensory information is sent to the brain or ganglia,
where interneurons integrate the information
• Motor output leaves the brain or ganglia via motor
neurons, which trigger muscle or gland activity

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


• Many animals have a complex nervous system that
consists of
• A central nervous system (CNS) where integration
takes place; this includes the brain and a nerve cord
• A peripheral nervous system (PNS), which carries
information into and out of the CNS
• The neurons of the PNS, when bundled together,
form nerves

© 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Figure 48.3

Reseptor

Impuls Neuron sensori


Stimulus
Sensory input

Sensor Integration Syaraf Pusat


-Otak (sadar)
-Sumsum Tulang Belakang (r
Otot/Kelenjar

Motor output

Neuron motorik

Effector Peripheral nervous Central nervous


system (PNS) system (CNS)
Sistem Syaraf Pusat
• OTAK
Cerembrum
Cerebellum
Sumsum lanjutan/ Medula Oblongata

• SUMSUM TULANG BELAKANG


cerebrum corpus
callosum

thalamus
Pineal gland
hypothalamus
cerebellum
pituitary
pons medulla
oblongata
spinal cord
Cerebrum (Otak Besar)
• Involved with higher brain functions.
• Processes sensory information.
• Initiates motor functions.
• Integrates information.
Regions of the cerebrum are
specialized for different functions

• The cerebrum
is divided into
frontal,
temporal,
occipital, and
parietal lobes.
Bagian Cerebrum
• Lobus Frontalis (depan)
Pusat kecerdasan, daya ingat, dan kesadaran
• Lobus Parietalis (tengah)
Pusat Pengecap dan Pembau
• Lobus Oksipitalis (belakang)
Pusat Penglihatan
• Lobus Temporalis (samping)
Pusat Pendengaran
Cerebellum
Pusat keseimbangan tubuh dan koordinasi otot
Medulla Oblongata
• Pusat gerak reflex fisiologis (alat-alat tubuh bagian dalam)
Respirasi, pencernaan, tekanan darah
Sumsum Tulang Belakang
Mengatur gerak reflex pada alat tubuh bagian luar
Sistem Syaraf Simpatik
1. Sekresi hormone adrenalin (meningkatkan kadar gula dalam darah, glikogen->
glukosa)
2. Peningkatan denyut jantung
3. Peningkatan tekanan darah
4. Terjadinya dilatasi pupil
5. Terjadinya penyempitan pembuluh darah
6. Penurunan produksi saliva oleh kelenjar saliva
7. Penurunan kontraksi lambung atau usus
Sistem Syaraf Parasimpatik
1. Sekresi hormone insulin (glukosa-> glikogen)
2. Penurunan denyut jantung
3. Penurunan tekanan darah
4. Terjadinya konstriksi pupil
5. Terjadinya pelebaran pembuluh darah
6. Peningkatan produksi saliva oleh kelenjar saliva
7. Peningkatan kontraksi lambung atau usus
Tangoreseptor
Badan Meisner
Ruffini Krause

Paccini
Kemoreseptor